Verb Inflection Categories (Tense, Person, Aspect, Mood) Review


  • Muhammad Abulfattah Saeed Mahwi Department of Kurdish Language, College of Language, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Aryan Sdiq Aziz Department of Kurdish Language, College of Language, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



Verb, Tense, Person, Aspect, Mood


By evaluating the analysis and arguments of both groups, we identify the inflectional categories as the following:

Tense: It is a syntactic category of verbal inflection which indicates the time. It has two types, which are:

Past: its morphemes and allomorphs are /-a/, /y\i-/, /w\u-/, /d-/, /t-/.

Present: its morphemes and allomorphs are /de-/ and /e-/.

However, “time” is a physical issue which is different from “tense”. It means the issue is mostly semantic rather than syntactic. In Kurdish language, we can identify the tense boundaries and clarify their times by dictionary lexemes.

Hatm : dwene hatm : agar hatm.

Dem : wa dem : sbai dem.

Person: whether singular or plural, as a verbal inflectional category, is a syntactic segment of verb. In the verb structure, it agrees with the verb according to its type and time, either as simple agreement or complex agreement.

Mn tom nard: tom nardit: nardmit

Aspect: each ofthe linguists Muhammed Mahwi, Wrya Omar Amin and Mahmud Fathulladivided aspect into perfective, imperfective and progressive. However, through analysis and discussion of examples, it has been obvious that aspect is of two types in Kurdish language.The researcher follows this latter conclusion:

a. Perfective

b. Imperfective (Continuous), Progressive (close) and far.

Tense and aspect, which are verbal inflectionalcategories, are parts of tense. Tense determines past and present, but aspect determines its perfectness and imperfectness.

Perfective and imperfective(continuous, progressive).

Mood:indicative, uncertainty (conditional, subjunctive and uncertainty)

The researcher uses these principles and conclusions in his PhD dissertation to carry out his investigation.


١- ئه‌وڕه‌حمانی حاجی مارف، ڕێزمانی كوردی، به‌رگی یه‌كه‌م، وشه‌سازی، به‌شی پێنجه‌م -كردار-، سلێمانی، چ.سه‌رده‌م 2000

٢- محەمەدی مەحویی: پێڕەوی ئەرگەتیڤیی كوردیی، پەسنكردن و بەراوردكاریی، گۆڤاری زانکۆی کۆیە، ٣١/ ٢٠١٤

٣- محەمەدی مەحویی، بنەماكانی سینتاكسی كوردیی، بەرگی یەكهەم، زانکۆی سلێمانیی، ٢٠١٠

٤- محەمەدی مەحویی، شكانەوەی كردار،زانکۆی سلێمانیی، ٢٠١٠

٥- محەمەدی مەحویی، مۆرفۆلۆژیی و بەیەکداچوونی پێکهاتەکان (مۆرفۆلۆژیی کوردیی)، بەرگی یەکەم، زانکۆی سلێمانیی، ٢٠١٠

- A Kurdish Grammar, Descriptive Analysis of The Kurdish of Sulaimaniya, Iraq, by: Ernest N .McCarus, Spoken Language Services, Inc, American Council of learned societies, New York, 1958

-Aspects of The Verbal Construction in Kurdish, Waria Omar Amin, London University, Haji Hashm Printing House, 2011.

- Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics, Georgios K. Giannakis. 2013

- Kurdish Dialect Studies-1, by D. N. Mackenzie, London Oxford University Press, 1961.

- The Tense and Aspect system in Kurdish, Mahmoud Fathulla Ahmad, A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy at The School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Linguistic Department. 2004.



How to Cite

Mahwi, M. A. S., & Aziz, A. S. (2018). Verb Inflection Categories (Tense, Person, Aspect, Mood) Review: . Halabja University Journal, 3(1), 27-46.

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