Halabja University Journal 2023-04-01T17:20:59+00:00 Rebwar Zainalddin Mohammed [email protected] Open Journal Systems <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Halabja University Journal (HUJ)</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> is a quarterly academic journal published by the University of Halabja, Halabja, Kurdistan, Iraq. HUJ has a print-ISSN: 2412- 9607 and an electronic-ISSN: 2617-3360. HUJ is an international, multi-disciplinary, multi-language journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas, such as natural and applied Science, Humanities, and Social Sciences. HUJ is a Peer-Reviewed, double-blind and Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). HUJ provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal. Halabja University Journal applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts APA citation/referencing style. </span></p> Khana Qubadi's Invention in the Field of Thought and the Art of Poetry Epic 2023-04-01T17:20:59+00:00 Fazil Majid Mahmood [email protected] Shoxan Ramazan Qadir [email protected] <p>Khana Qubadi was one of the great poets of classical Kurdish literature. He lived at the end of seventeenth century and the beginning of eighteenth century. He always seeked freedom and he was against oppression and violence. He was proud of Kurdish language. Qubadi has the greatest collection of poems. In some genres, he was the role model for other Kurdish poets such as: translation of the Holy Quran, Epics, Repetition, Satire. Despite that his era was full of wars and conflicts, he could skilfully use his artistic abilities and he brought many literary innovations into Kurdish literature. Therefore, he shines like a star in Kurdish literature. This paper tries to shed light on his literary inventions in order to be used as a source for scientific researches and to make Kurdish researchers pay more attention to this great poet, who is from Goran dialect, because he is one of the poets with numerous poems, but he has not gained reseachers’ attention yet.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Fazil Majid Mahmood, Shoxan Ramazan Qadir Woman in Kurdish Literature, Rangdan and Mlwanka's poem collections by Sherko Bekas an Example 2023-03-31T11:41:38+00:00 Kanyaw Bakr Abdulla [email protected] Shwana Noori Abdulla [email protected] <p>This research “Woman in Kurdish Literature, Rangdan and Mlwanka's Divans by Sherko Bekas as Example” aims to explore two factors, which are : “Women and Sherko Bekas poems”. On one hand, women are as an component of the basis of literature, and on the other hand, the same component, but in the poetry of Sherko Bekas especially in the poem collections of “Milwanka and Rangdan” which have been taken as examples. Many prepared indexes might be paid enough attention in the poems of Sherko Bekas and have been made elements of many researches. But generally, working on the position of women and existence of this genre of nature, and contributing the status and value of women in Kurdish literature and more specifically in the poem collections of Sherko Bekas, were the main reasons of choosing this research. The descriptivism criteria have been applied in the research which contains variety of critics and view points about the subjects, then analysis and explaining coequal and different opinions in the poems of Sherko Bekas and further analysis of texts in these terms.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kanyaw Bakr Abdulla, Shwana Noori Abdulla Gender in the Lexicon and Morphology of Hawrami Dialect 2023-03-31T11:56:42+00:00 Abduljabar Mustafa Ma'roof [email protected] Zhino Nizar Ahmad [email protected] <p>This paper is entitled (Gender in the lexicon and Morphology of&nbsp; Hawrami Dialect). It is an attempt to present and analyze the model of gender representation in the dialect. Gender has been used as a hyponym for sexual, grammatical and social dimensions. The research steps were conducted within the boundaries of the gender and grammatical dimensions and the research work began with the lexicon, since the lexicon contains the background of linguistic and non-linguistic information in its primary materials and mono lexical elements. Identifying the content of these gender-related lexicons shows us to which dimensions the forms have gender markings from the lexicon. From there, the process of gender representation can be tested again in the grammaticalization of the cultural element, especially in the morphological structure Morphologically (the morphology of creation and Inflection ) is how the gender complementary system works, so the process is involved both as transfer, interpretation and Inflection. The research was conducted according to the descriptive method of analysis and the research materials were taken from Hawrami dialect.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Abduljabar Mustafa Ma'roof, Zhino Nizar Ahmad Impact of movie direction studies on Kurdish director 2023-03-31T12:07:05+00:00 Hiwa Mohammed Latif [email protected] Abdulnaser Mustafa Ibrahim [email protected] <p>The distinctive success achieved by cinema, at the beginning of twentieth century, as a mass art with form and content, and the great power it has for recording and representing reality, on one hand, and the magical production power of images and subjects, most of it falls on the process of movie production, and the director appears as the first responsible of movies. When directing finds its path as a solid foundation in the world of movie making and cinema industry, then the outlook and idea of directors, as individuals or as groups, leads to up-rise of different studies of movie directing, where these studies constitute many principles and regulations of their own, which they build form and content of their films, and their influence will spread in the world of cinema extensively and become an important part of cinematic theories. Influences of these studies on movies and various cinematic productions of international directors can be seen and found, therefore in recent years we notice that Kurds were not exempt from these influences, and Kurdish movie directors were, directly or indirectly, making their movies under effects of these influences. These influences matched with the internal conditions of their people, their suffering, and their visions, according to message and content of the movies they include. On the other hand, due to the small budget required to produce a film, Kurdish filmmakers and directors need to make films with low cost and techniques and to be able to prove their imagination and ideas well.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Hiwa Mohammed Latif, Abdulnaser Mustafa Ibrahim The role of educational channels in raising the level of learning among the students of the Kurdistan Region 2023-03-31T12:07:10+00:00 Amera Ahmed Rasheed [email protected] Karwan Muhemmed Hasan [email protected] <p>This research aims to reveal the role of educational channels in raising the level of learning among the students of the Kurdistan Region and to know the percentage of their use and the importance of these channels for studentsn , The importance of the research for a clear vision of the educational channels lies in their awareness of the educational programs they offer and how they reflect on the level of student learning , for this purpose the researcher has done a thoughtful research through the distribution of the survey form ( questionnaire) to the students of grades (10,11 and 12) of the two sections (literary and scientific) for both genders , whose number (455) students in sulaymaniyah , to get their snswer , and in the end the researcher came to the conclusion that students benefited greatly from watching educational channels, the majority of students who use educational channels are female and have lower rates .</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Amera Ahmed Rasheed, Karwan Muhemmed Hasan The Effectiveness of Behavioral Therapy Programs in Improving Social Interaction for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Kindergarten 2023-03-31T12:13:56+00:00 Suham Ahmad Abdalla [email protected] <p>This research aims to determine the impact of the behavioral therapy program on the development of social interaction for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in kindergarten, using the quasi-experimental method, based on a pre- and post-experiment design for one group, and the research sample consists of (14) children, and they were chosen on nonrandomly , children diagnosed with ADHD were distributed into two groups based on their mental age (intelligence). The first group contains (6) children in the early childhood center (Narjis) in Sulaymaniyah, the second group contains (8) children in the primary school (Sarshaqm) from special classes.‏ The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Scale (prepared by the researcher) was used to determine the level of disorder for the research model, then a behavioural treatment program consisting of 22 sessions was implemented, and after the program they were also measured in terms of attention deficit and hyperactivity to determine the difference in levels of disorder before and after the program.‏ The ( SPSS) program was also used to analyze the results. The results showed that the behavioral treatment program had a high impact on the social development of the research example, and it had a high effect in reducing the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Suham Ahmad Abdalla Psychological and social problems of the blinds, a field study in Sulaymaniyah City 2023-03-31T12:24:19+00:00 Wahida Hama Waiss Nasrulah [email protected] Shvan Abdalkarim Arif [email protected] <p>The researcher conducted a research entitled (Psychological and social problems of the blinds, a field study in Sulaymaniyah city.) Further, regardless of the gender, the research aims to reveal the psychological and social problems of the blind in Sulaymaniyah. The researcher relied on qualitative method based on semi-open interviews to collect data and information. In addition, the participants consisted of 20 blind people in Sulaymaniyah, 10 males and 10 females, who had three main characteristics: they were all over 25 years old, married and employed. The most important results show that most of the blind females felt inferior, but males did not However, most families of the blind females felt ashamed and inferior because of their blind member, Socially, the blind males are more likely to feel embarrassed about making friends. It can be said, the research shows that in education the blind students are not treated well by the teachers. Also, the poor buildings of the schools and lack of audio recordings of scientific resources are the major problems for the blind people. Lack of scientific resources that are written in braille was also a problem.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Wahida Hama Waiss Nasrulah, Shvan Abdalkarim Arif Causes of drug prevalence among youth 2023-03-31T12:54:45+00:00 Wahida Hama Waiss Nasrulah [email protected] Aram Asad Abdulrahim [email protected] <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; The phenomenon of drug use and trafficking, along with terrorism, war and hunger, is one of the major crises of human society. Especially young people have become addicted to drugs, which is a dangerous alarm for the future of Kurdish society and the deterioration of family harmony. Based on social learning theory, microculture, peer groups, family behavior, relative deprivation, leisure time related to the causes of drug prevalence among youth. This is descriptive-explanatory research using qualitative and phenomenological methods. As addiction has been studied and understood as a social phenomenon. The interview technique was used to collect information and interviews were conducted with (13)experts in the field of drugs, including (3)psychiatrists, (6)social workers,(2)heads of drug organizations, (1) prosecutor and (1) head of the drug directorate in the Kurdistan Region. To interpret and analyze the data, qualitative content analysis method was used by collecting the text of the interviews, classifying the data in such a way that duplicate and similar items are removed. The reasons for the spread of drugs among young people include social, family, political, economic, personal and psychological, weakness of the law, etc., which makes drugs increase day by day.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Wahida Hama Waiss Nasrulah, Aram Asad Abdulrahim The development of discourse in the Umayyad period 2023-03-31T12:54:43+00:00 Yasen Husain Muhamad [email protected] Salih Amin Aziz [email protected] <p>In&nbsp; this research we´ve mentioned about the development of discourse during the Umayyad s period. The discourse had an important role in directing the historical events and had a great effect on the people emotion .This our research consists of two parts :In first part we have mentioned the concept of discourse linguistically and idiomatically, afterwards we´ve talked about &nbsp;some different definitions of discourse and the history of it´s appearance,&nbsp; we have refered the Greek´s role in putting the priciple and rules of discourse and discourser &nbsp;in it. We have explaned &nbsp;&nbsp;the reason of the development of discourse by Greeks and undeveloped by Romans .We´ve determined the sorts of discourse and then we have mentioned Arabian care attention to discourse during the ignorance period. &nbsp;Non-existend a united government and having lots of tribes what role have they had to improve the discourse?</p> <p>&nbsp;With coming of holy Islamic religion the discourse entered a new stage٫ because this religion has given alot of &nbsp;importance to discourse, .‌Prophet(peace be upon him)and&nbsp; the caliphs of Rashideen had benefited from discourse to deliver the religion messages and explaning the policy of their country. In second part we have indicated the staying and &nbsp;geographical &nbsp;borders of the Umayyad government and then that political ,social and economic circumstance&nbsp; that the government has involved,&nbsp; it´s caused the development of intellectual and scientific life ,groups appeared , they had the main role in development of discourse from this period, this research is an attempt to indicate the most important component and the main elements of discourse ,it´s development during the Umayyad period.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Yasen Husain Muhamad, Salih Amin Aziz Minaret, Importance in Islamic civilization 2023-03-31T13:12:26+00:00 Ikram Sherwan Hussein [email protected] Zryan Salar Hama Arif [email protected] <p>Islamic minaret is considered one of the most important and prominent architectural structures in mosques, and it did not exist at the beginning of Islamic civilization during the era of the Prophet (peace be upon him) because of the preoccupation with spreading the Islamic call/Da’wa and the simplicity of Islamic architecture in the early first century H., after the extensive Islamic conquests in the reign of Omar Ibn Al-Khattab. When the Muslims met the Christian and Zoroastrian and other societies, they were getting acquainted with the great civilizations of this period, including the Christian Romans, the Zoroastrian Persians, the Buddhists, and the Hindus in India and the Far East. Each of these civilizations had an impact on Muslims, especially in the field of architecture. When the Muslims saw the churches of the Levant with high towers, where bells were hung, they used it as a means to call and gather their followers to pray and perform their worship or announce the death of a member of their community. Also, the Muslims built minarets inside or beside the mosques to call the Muslims and remind them of the time of prayers.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ikram Sherwan Hussein, Zryan Salar Hama Arif Al-Hafiz Al-Iraqi and his Approach to Differenciation of Hadiths in his Book (Tarh Al-Tathreeb) 2023-03-31T13:23:32+00:00 Payam Jafer Ali [email protected] Kamaran Awrahman Majed [email protected] <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>پوختەی توێژینەوەکە:</strong></p> <p>رونکردنەوەی ئاین و سەرقاڵى خەريکبوون بە تێکستەکان باشترین كارە پاش بروا بوون بە خوای گەورە، بەهۆى ئەم خزمەتەوە زانایان بە میراتی پێغەمبەران - سەلامی خوایان لە سەر بێ- دادەنرێت، خودا شکۆداريان دەکات ودەيانکاتە گەواهى دەر لەسەر تەنهايي خۆى، هەر بۆيە تاووتوێ کردنى تێکستە شەر‌عيەکان&nbsp; بەڕاڤەکردن ياخود لێکدانەوەو رونكردنەوە لەوچوارچێوەدا خۆى دەبينێتەوە.</p> <p>گومانيش لەوەدا نيە کە فەرموودەكانى پەيامبەر-درودی خوای لە سەر بێ- لەووتەو ڕەفتارو هەڵس و كەوتى لە كاتى سەفەرو نيشتەنيدا بەشێکي سەرەکيە لە تێکستەکان.</p> <p>زانايان گرنگي تەواويان بەڕاڤەو لێکدانەوەي فەرموودە داوە لەوکاتەی فەرموودە کۆکراوەتەوە، نمونەى ئەو زانایەى خاوەن سەروەت و زانيارى گەورەن لەم بوارەدا زاناي بەناوبانگي جيهاني حافزی عێراقی كورديه.</p> <p>ئەكەر سەرنجى كتێبى(طرح التثريب...) بدەين، زياتر بەهای ئەو كتێبەو فراوانى زانيارى حافزی عێراقی دەردەكەوێت له بواره جياوازەكاندا، لە گەڵ بوونی ئەو شەرحە بە پێزو جوانەى هەيبوە لە فەرمودەدا.</p> <p>لە زانياریە جیاوازەکانی ئەو كتێبە بریتیە لە: زمان- نحو صرف- بەلاغە- لابردنى جياوازى لە ماناى فەرموودەدا- تەرجيح دان<strong>(</strong>پەسەند)</p> <p>سەرەرارى قوڵبونەوە لە بوارى فیقهو و فەرمودەو ئوصولدا، گرنكى زۆرى به فەرموودە جياوازەكان داوە، بۆيه ئەم بابەته بۆ ئێمه گرنگە؛ بۆ لێكۆلينەوەمان لەو فەرموودانەى لەفزەكانيان جياوازه بە هۆى جياوازى لە دەربرينى راويەكان لە بەشێك لەو فەرموودە يان هەموو فەرموودەكە،</p> <p>ئوميد دەكەين بتوانين لە هەڵبژاردنی ئەم بابەتەو لە هەوڵەكانى حافزى عيراقی لە روى ميتۆدو ديدگاى تايبەتى خۆى بۆ(مختلف الحديث) لەناو ئەم كتێبەدا بە باشی بخەينه ‌روو.</p> <p><strong>ملخص البحث:</strong></p> <p>بيان الدين والاشتغال به هو من أفضل الأعمال بعد الإيمان، فهذه الخدمة الجليلة هي التي جعلت العلماء ورثة الانبياء، ورفع مكانتهم إلى أن جعلهم الله سبحانه شهداء على وحدانيته بعد شهادته عز وجل، والبحث عن نصوص الدين بشرحها وتحليلها داخل في هذه الفضيلة، ومن النصوص الشرعية أحاديث الرسول الكريم (صلى الله عليه وسلم)من أقواله وأفعاله وتصرفاته في السفر والحضر، وقد خاض العلماء في هذا الأمر منذ تدوين السنة شرحاً وبياناً، ومن هؤلاء الذين لهم باع طويل في موضوع السنة هو العالم المشهور الحافظ العراقي الكردي، وبعد النظر الى كتاب(طرح التثريب)وجدنا أنه كتاب قيم&nbsp; يحتوي على لآلي منثورة من علوم مختلفة، حيث فضلاً عن شرحه للأحاديث شرحاً لطيفاً واضحاً، يعثر الإنسان فيه على علوم متنوعة مثل علوم اللغة ودقائق النحو والصرف وقواعد دفع التعارض والتراجيح وعلم البلاغة، هذا كله مع التعمق في المسائل الفقهية والحديثية والأصولية وغيرها. وقد أولى تركيزاً واهتماماً على موضوع</p> <p>مختلف الحديث اهتماما بالغاً وهذا الأمر أخذ مكانه عندنا لأننا نعرف هناك اختلاف في السنة بناء على اختلاف الرواة في لفظة في الرواية أو جزء من الرواية وقد تكون الرواية تماما مختلفة مع أخرى، ونحن نتمنى أن نبرز منهج الحافظ العراقي في التعامل مع مختلف الحديث في ثوب مستقل جلي بإذن الله تعالى فاخترنا مختلف الحديث في الكتاب المذكور لهذه الدراسة.<strong>&nbsp; </strong></p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Payam Jafer Ali, Kamaran Awrahman Majed The approach of Sheikh Abdul Qadir Al-Muhajir in proving the oneness of God through his book (raful hajib fi sharhi ethbatul wajib) 2023-04-01T11:20:29+00:00 Hameed Mohammed Ameen Azeez [email protected] Erfan Rashid Sharif [email protected] <p>This research studies the approach of a great scholar of theology in Kurdistan, Sheikh Abd al-Qadir al-Muhajir al-Sanandji (1303 AH) in the most important issue of faith, which is to prove the oneness of God Almighty, by relying on one of his valuable works that have not yet been printed, which is (raful hajib fi sharhi ethbatul wajib). The problem of the research lies in explaining the approach of Sheikh Abdul Qadir in inferring the oneness of God Almighty, as he has multiple evidences, some of them on the method of the theologians and some on the approach of the philosophers. The importance of the research is highlighted in that Sheikh Abdul Qadir has choices in theology in many issues that he wrote down in his many books, and this issue is one of the most important issues of faith at all, and this book that the researcher relied on among his books is one of his unstudied scientific books so far. So, the researcher made an analytical study of his method and compared it with the methods of theologians and philosophers. And it emerged from this study that Sheikh Abdul Qadir was a well-versed scholar in theology, and he had an outstanding ability to liberate the issues of this science, and he chose a group of different evidence to prove the oneness of God Almighty.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Hameed Mohammed Ameen Azeez, Erfan Rashid Sharif The role of Ijtihad in the development of contemporary Islamic economics in the light of Dr Ali Al-Qardaghi’s opinions 2023-04-01T11:41:11+00:00 Abdullah Omer Fatah [email protected] Fadhil Mahmood Qadir [email protected] <p>The following research paper is an attempt to understand Islamic economics in the present era along with by what method to modernize and develop it. The researcher benefits from the apprehension and thoughtful of one of the personalities and scholars of Islam in the present era.</p> <p>We have attached science to Islamic economics which becomes" The Science of Islamic Economics" for the reason that the character through which we wanted to understand Islamic economics adopts this formula and looks at Islamic economics as a science with its foundations and the method of its development and modernization. We have demonstrated in present research that this science has its own peculiarity, the ground for its growth, and the method of its development and performance. The research represent the methodology of&nbsp; Dr. Ali Al-Qardaghi in his legal and scientific dealings with Islamic economics.&nbsp; The researcher uses the descriptive analytical method in his research. The research examines the importance of diligence (ijtihad) as one of the legal evidence in the process of building the contemporary Islamic economic system. Since the texts from the Qur’an and the Sunnah are not sufficiently available to extent and correspond to the developments of the era in this field, which have undergone a lot of change since the era of revelation to present day.. We ask God for success and guidance in our effort.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Abdullah Omer Fatah, Fadhil Mahmood Qadir Surface water estimation in Sewell watershed 2023-04-01T17:20:56+00:00 Alan Bakr Abdulla [email protected] Khalil Kareem Muhammad [email protected] <p>This study was conducted in the field of hydrology, through which the researcher analysed the hydrological characteristics of the waters of the Sewell Basin, depending on the file of the digital elevation model (DEM12.5m) for the study area, and the use of the hydrological GIS program to find the morphometric characteristics affecting the hydrology of the region. The researcher also resorted to a method Conservation of American soils and curve number In order to obtain the volume of running water during the year and in this way, it lies between two latitudes(35<sup>o</sup> 34<sup>- </sup>29<sup>= </sup>- 35<sup>o </sup>55<sup>- </sup>23<sup>=</sup>)N and two longitudes (45<sup>o</sup> 26<sup>- </sup>01<sup>= </sup>- 46<sup>o </sup>20<sup>- </sup>49<sup>=</sup>)to the east, the water channels of the Sewell Basin are six (6) ranks in an area of ​​about (1545 km2), its length is (82.6 km) and its width is (18.70 km), and the highest point in the basin is (2770 m) in the north of the region. The lowest point in the study area is located at an altitude of (816 m) above sea level. The objective of this study is to analyses the hydrological characteristics of the main Sewell Basin and the secondary basins in order to estimate the water flow in it. There are 11 secondary water basins in the study area. The hydrological characteristics of these basins have a direct impact on the amount of water accumulation. The study concluded that the basins have large areas of water resources, and the expected annual water volume in the main Sewell Basin (1.113 billion / m3), and the average annual irrigation during the period (2012-2015) was (6.69 m 3 / sec).</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Alan Bakr Abdulla, Khalil Kareem Muhammad The effects of the amount of vegetation on the change in temperature in the city of Halabja using GIS and RS 2023-04-01T17:20:51+00:00 Jalal Ahmed Abdalkarim [email protected] Pakiza Aziz Saied [email protected] <p>Vegetation areas in the cities of the Kurdistan region is important to study as it directly impacts environmental factors as well as the lives of citizens and the weather of the area. this study aims to study the land use/cover state with remotely sensed data (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS) using satellite images from landsat 7-8 for the months of May and September of 2002-2020 along with landsat 5 for April and august of 2010. This was conducted through NDVI technology using bands 3-4-5 and bands 6-10 for Land Surface Temperature. To analyse the relationship between NDVI and LST a number of equations were utilised on the satellite images with RS and GIS programs. It was discovered that vegetation has a direct relationship with the temperature of the study area.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Jalal Ahmed Abdalkarim, Pakiza Aziz Saied Political Culture of Kurdistan Region Factors and Features 2023-04-01T17:20:48+00:00 Rashad Miran [email protected] Kurdistan Mohammed Mahmood [email protected] <p>Political Culture is perception and approach of people in relation to politics and political system, which at the same time is an important factor in determining the type of political system and plays an important role in stabilizing democracy. So far, less importance has been given to the role of culture in politics and determining the type of political system in Kurdistan. This research is titled political culture of Kurdistan factors and features, which is also the first research on this topic. The purpose of the research is to show the features and factors of the political culture of the Kurdistan region, which is finally reflected in its politics and political system. Analytical research has been done based on historical and library methods.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Rashad Miran, Kurdistan Mohammed Mahmood