Halabja University Journal 2022-01-03T18:45:09+00:00 Farooq Omar Ahmed Open Journal Systems <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Halabja University Journal (HUJ)</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> is a quarterly academic journal published by the University of Halabja, Halabja, Kurdistan, Iraq. HUJ has a print-ISSN: 2412- 9607 and an electronic-ISSN: 2617-3360. HUJ is an international, multi-disciplinary, multi-language journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas, such as natural and applied Science, Humanities, and Social Sciences. HUJ is a Peer-Reviewed, double-blind and Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). HUJ provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal. Halabja University Journal applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts APA citation/referencing style. </span></p> Aestheticism of narration in Kurdish tales 2022-01-02T11:04:16+00:00 Bushra Qadr Kaka Muhamad Muhamad Ahmad Saeed <p>This thesis which is under the name of “aestheticism of narration in Kurdish tales “ works on and covers the manners and types of Kurdish tales, demonstrating and analyzing the principles of aestheticism in them.<br>Kurdish tales as a valuable and important part of Kurdish folklore, after writing down and recording them, have been mentioned from several points of views in previous writings.<br>A significant perspective that hasn’t been talked about as much is the aestheticism that lies in several kinds of the tales.<br>In this research we specifically shed light on aestheticism taking examples from all over different tales that have been collected in Kurdish literature. Our research is composed of two major parts:<br>In the first part, for specifying the outlook of “aestheticism of narration “in tales ,we talked about the word itself and its corresponding analogs “myths, stories “ also what makes the difference between all these genres .<br>Then we divided types of tales with giving instances for each which such as “fairytales, social tales, religious and parody tales” In narrative, a motif is any recurring element that has symbolic significance in a story.<br>Through its repetition, a motif can help produce other narrative (or literary) aspects for example as theme or mood. We spoke about (character, place, time, expression, number) motifs in the second part of our thesis.</p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Copyright (c)2021Bushra qadr Kaka Muhamad, Muhamad Ahmad Saeed Types of dialogue in modern Kurdish poetry 2022-01-02T15:50:36+00:00 Sara Sdqi Hama Amin Fadhil Majid Mahmod <p>This a new research in a variety of dialogue techniques especially in direct dialogue for the new Kurdish poems. The research is based on the analytical descriptive method, and we applied on the examples of the recent Kurdish Poets, and we pointed out the new types of poetic dialogues.<br>The main purpose of this research is to mention the importance of the role of dialogue techniques and types of direct dialogue in renewing, crossing borders and interfering between poetry and prose. The combination of these techniques in writing for the purpose of conveying the goals of the poet and what he wants to convey with creativity for a new type in Kurdish literature.</p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sara sdqi Hama Amin,SettingsFadhil Majid Mahmod The Poetic Rhetoric of the Mulla Abdulla Ahmadian's Poems 2022-01-02T16:16:31+00:00 Muhammed Othman Muhammed Idrees Abdulla Mustsfa <p>The poet Mulla Abdullah Ahmadian is one of the creative scholars in the second half of the twentieth century, graduated from religious schools. He is one of the famous poets who is similar to (Jaziri, Mawlawi, and Mahwi) from the classics, but his poetry is distinguished from the poetry of the other poets mentioned in terms of form, music, language and style. Reflected fact of the conversation. There is no doubt that poetry found its way through the rhetorical arts, and this is what we clearly find in the poetry of our poet. This research concerns his poetry and eloquence in the poems of Mulla Abdullah Ahmadian,<br>and the keywords include the rhetorical arts (meanings, statement, and badi)<br>and the research has reached several results.<br>1. Poetry is embodied in the poems of Mulla Abdullah Ahmadian through the use of rhetorical arts, as it turned out. <br>2. The poet unleashed his imagination in the field of rhetorical arts (meanings, statement, and aesthetic).<br>3.Using all these rhetorical arts, the poems of Mulla Abdullah Ahmadian are enjoyable and beautiful.</p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammed Othman Muhammed, SettingsIdrees Abdulla Mustsfa Narration in Anecdotal Poems of Anwar Qadir 2022-01-02T16:33:08+00:00 Rawand Hama Jaza Qadhi Mariwan Omer Hassan <p>The start of literature genre was alongside the modernization of human society. Meaning that, any method or concept will not remain the same forever at any stage of life, so even if they stays constant, it will not remain without being affected by changes. As a result, this will lead to the initiation of new genres, so the anecdotal poems is one of the new forms of poems which resulted from the interaction of both story and poetry. One of the well known elements of this new genre is known as (Narrative) which is the basic constructing element of anecdotal poems. A story or incident would be told in a form of poems with the use of narration which this also gives joy to the event and giving a message to the teller that remains in the mind of reader and receiver on the other hand. This form of poems has a long history in the Kurdish literature.<br>There are tens of love and heroic anecdotes written in the form of poems in the Kurdish literature, and it also left important footages and impact on the contemporary literature of the Kurds. Anwar Qadir is one of the poets of the seventies, and we can find multiple anecdotal poems of him that he wrote after the establishment of Rwanga Group. Among his anecdotal poetry, we can also find narrative stories which shows us the use of narration had a great role in his poems with the techniques of dialogue, monologue, and flashback .</p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Rawand Hama Jaza Qadhi, Mariwan Omer Hassan Cognitive Processing for Writing structure in the Kurdish Language 2022-01-03T12:24:45+00:00 Shilan Omar Hussein <p>This research entitled (Cognitive Processing for Writing structure in the Kurdish Language) aims to describe the mental processing behind a certain text, which is firstly the plan processing that includes producing thought and organizing ideas. Secondly, there is transfer (change) processing of the thought-related inputs and conceptual contents of the thought output that is considered as the production of the text. Thirdly, there is a review processing, which includes reviewing both reading and writing from the beginning. Since the writing processing is a mental processing, having its own regulations, competencies and skills; so the working memory rates the mental processing for the process of writing, because the main function of this memory is to restrict the processes of receiving information by human being and processing them. These are the topics that have been presented in the first section of this research. <br>In the second section, the smallest unit in the writing structure in the Kurdish language was taken to activate the mental processing, which is the paragraph, where the composing parts of the paragraph, their combinations and components were presented, according to the mental processing for the thought-related inputs of the text production, through which the cognitive processing of composing the writing structure has been examined and examples from the Kurdish language have been presented to validate this hypothesis.</p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Shilan Omar Hussein The Metaphor image in the poetical works (taman) of the poet (Ahmed Muhamad) 2022-01-03T12:35:20+00:00 Edres Muhamad Radha Idrees Abdulla Mustafa <p>The metaphor according to its importance in the production of different literary images, it contributes through these images to the production of verbal economics by producing a beautiful summary of speech, and in many cases the images of the metaphor are not perceived by the average reader, but rather by the competent reader. Metaphorical images make for the purpose of brevity the words in the literary text, and give pleasure to the reader of the text, as by means of them the way of ordinary speech changes into different forms.<br>Metaphor is one of the arts that creates the basics of literature, and gives beauty to the literary text required by its method. Hence, this research provides a service for documenting the texts of the poets referred to at the beginning.<br><br></p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 SettingsEdres Muhamad Radha, SettingsIdrees Abdulla Mustafa The icon challenges in Kurdish poetry 2022-01-03T12:45:47+00:00 Dilshad Ali Muhammed Nawzad Ali Ahmed <p>So far, the term resisting icons of has not been touched on either in Kurdish literature or in world literature. There are studies dealing with the term icon and others that deal with the term resisting poetry at the global level, but the resisting icons as a term has not yet been touched upon, and what the Kurdish literature has dealt with in this regard is the resisting poetry.<br>This research is divided into two parts. The first part has been devoted to the terms icon and resisting icons, while the second part is a practical study that includes some poems taken from the journal «Nusari Kurdistan” published during the armed struggle in the mountains from 1981 untill 1991.</p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dilshad Ali Muhammed, SettingsNawzad Ali Ahmed Raib Almanun in Arabic poetry : (a semantic grammatical study) 2022-01-03T13:05:46+00:00 Zana Shabaz Karem <p>This research explores a widespread phenomenon in Arabic poetry, and this phenomenon is the use of an additional compound (Raib al manoon) that comes in the sense of the eternal accidents and its various modes of worrying and intimidating man, as well as the significance of human being, as well as his fear of God. Arabs have used this compound since ancient times, and we find that the owners of linguistic puzzles mentioned it in their literature and explained its significance, and so did the poets from the beginnings of Arabic poetry in pre-Islamic literature.<br>And it became clear to us through the extrapolation of Arabic poetry that the poet comes this compound to refer to the adversity of life and its various misfortunes that afflict a person and that the human being has no authority or ability, and he cannot pay it, because he is idle about it.<br>This is because this additional compound is a name that is under the rule of the Arab sentence, so it is raised, erected or cited. This research will attempt to describe how poets use it, and analyze the form of this compound to arrive at the indications that poets wanted to express in their verses.</p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 SettingsZana shabaz Karem The Saur Coup (27 April 1978) in Afghanistan A Study of Political History 2022-01-03T13:14:48+00:00 Hawar Kamal Merza Abdulla <p>The Saur Coup had occured in 1978 and was done by the Khaq Democratic Party (PDPA). This Coup happened against Muhammad Dawood Khan (1973-1978).It became a turning point in the Afghan History and resulted in a Political, Economic and Cultural Crisis. On the external level, what outbroke the case was the relation of Khaq Democratic Party with Soviet Union, the fact that power the road to Soviet armed Forces to attack Afghanistan. The reason that motivated me to choose this subject is the importance and sensitivity of Thor Coup and its corrolaries and impact, at that time in Afghanistan and how the Khaq Democratic Party managed to bring to an end the Power of Muhammad Dawood Khan. In addition to that it is important to focus on how were the reactions and outcomes of this Coup and how it led to Social unrest and turmoil internally due to the suppression, associated with attempt to change the ruling system and Political Culture by the Communists, Which helped the Soviet to attack Afghanistan.<br />We, in the current study, conducted the analytica and Historical Methodology, to study the Saur Coup and to make clear its international effects on Afghanistan. The research is comprised of an introduction and four Chapters. The first Chapter is concerned with a general overview on the Pre-Saur Coup 1978 Afghanistan conditions. The second Chapter is related to the factors and surrounding condition that pawed to the Coup. The third chapter is Dedicated to how this this Coup occurred and universal reactions on it. At the Fourth chapter, was had the light on the outcomes the coup brought in to being, and its effects on Afganistan. Finally we summed up the study by the finding we have concluded.</p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 SettingsHawar Kamal Merza Abdulla The Use of Teaching Aids and scientific Technology in Teaching the subject of Geography at high school grades in the district of Kalar, and the faced impediments with Teachers' views 2022-01-03T13:28:35+00:00 Bakhtiyar Habib Said <p>The Use of Teaching Aids and scientific Technology in Teaching the subject of Geography at high school grades in the district of Kalar, and the faced impediments with Teachers› views<br>The study goals are to know to what extent Teaching Aids and Technologies can be used in teaching Geography in high school classes with its obstacles in the District of Kalar. 24 samples (male and female) teachers have been taken in the general directorate of educational / Kalar. The study used a descriptive approach and the study reached to: <br>The availability of Teaching Aids and Technologies in high schools in the Kalar District is low. The use of Teaching Aids and Technologies is weak, which means scarcity in use. The obstacles to the use of Teaching Aids and Technologies are «high» which includes a «shortage of raw materials and educational equipment in schools, and a lack of financial capabilities». Trends of geography teachers to Teaching Aids and Technologies use, in general, were positive. Based on the result, a set of proposals and recommendations have<br>Been presented.<br><br></p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Bakhtiyar Habib Said Basis and advantages performing principle of complementarity by the international criminal court 2022-01-03T15:53:54+00:00 Awara H. Ahmed Zana R. Saeed <p>International criminal court (ICC) It shall be a permanent institution and shall have the power to exercise its jurisdiction over natural persons for the most serious crimes of international concern, as referred to in its Statute (ICC statute), such as Genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and crime of aggression. ICC statute emphasizing that the ICC shall be complementary to national criminal jurisdictions, ICC wants to complement national judicial system not replace them, in this sense it recalling that it is the duty of every State to exercise its criminal jurisdiction over those responsible for international crimes. Complementarity is meant to close gaps in the task of prosecuting perpetrators of international crimes. The principle of complementarity only allows the court to investigate and prosecute crimes and perpetrators, where the concerned state is unwilling or unable genuinely to carry out the investigation or prosecution. The important and main advantages and rationales behind the principle of complementarity are affirming that the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole must not go unpunished. Prosecutions at the domestic level are generally preferred to perform before the ICC because as it generally favours a better access to evidence and testimony and tends to favour the participation to the trial of victims and witnesses and complementarity protects national sovereignty and at the same time promotes state action.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 SettingsAwara H. Ahmed,SettingsZana R. Saeed Anthropological Research Ethics 2022-01-03T16:40:47+00:00 Mohammed Hussein Mohammed Shwany <p>This research entitled (Anthropological Research Ethics) is a research humanitarian theory based description of the current state of Social Research in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, because of developments in the field of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Kurdistan have increased researchers and research and also on issues of social, political, religious and cultural Kurdish Society, and this leads us to emphasize the principles and ethical principles in research,<br>The Research is consists of introduction and three chapters, the first chapter describes the research problem , its importance and its goals, and determine the terms, Chapter II addressed the moral foundations of social research, in which he referred to the early thinking on ethics and the nature of anthropological studies at the beginning of its appearance, In the third chapter and the last take responsibility social scientist and control mechanisms on the research, when research on a topic he has to take as many factors in order to avoid many of the problems and attitudes critical towards himself and towards the methodology of scientific research and the investigator must respect the rights of respondents and the freedom to answer and to maintain the confidentiality of the answer individual members of the sample examined, and the Researched right to know the objectives of the research before or after participating as agreed by the researcher with members of the research sample and the extent of the impact on the expected results. and then not publish the results of research, with its moral and material losses of the respondents, as well as in the conclusion of research presented a set of recommendations and proposals.</p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mohammed Hussein Mohammed Shwany Al-Qaeda and ISIS’s Islamic Order Versus Middle East State-System: a Comparative Study on Strategy and Ideology 2022-01-03T16:54:20+00:00 Nayar Muhiadeen Hamadamin Othman Ahmed Ali <p>Both al-Qaida and ISIS had left significant bearing on international relations of the Middle East. This impact led to the emergence of a serious challenge to the Middle East’s political landscape which emergent in post World War I according to Sykes–Picot treaty of 1916. Although both organizations belong to Salafi Jihadism which is a part of global Jihad, they had different focuses and orientations which have hitherto not explained fully. The focus of this paper is to discuss the differences in their world views and methods of operations to change the Middle East political and security order.</p> 2022-01-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 SettingsNayar Muhiadeen Hamadamin, SettingsOthman Ahmed Ali Activating role of the soft power of media in addressing political conflict, The elites in the Kurdistan region as a sample. 2022-01-03T17:10:56+00:00 Fuad Ali Ahmad Harem Karim Ghafor <p>Activating role of the soft power of media in addressing political conflict, The elites in the Kurdistan region as a sample.<br>The concept of power is one of the international relations’ concepts, and a key element to rely on the concept of international interaction and their attitudes. Its importance becomes clear when the international conflict begins, and the response of the parties to the conflict appears when it depends on the material and moral strength. The concept of power and its trends developed hundreds of years ago, which consisted of military and economic power, that has a role in persuasion and willful influence, the most important of which is the media. Soft power comes after hard power (military and economic power) and soft power is an attractive force for any country, and its effect is stronger when the country is in a strong economic and military position.<br>So the researcher tries to activate the level of soft power of the media through the title (activating the role of the soft power of the media in addressing the political conflict) the elites in the Kurdistan region of Iraq as a sample.</p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 SettingsFuad Ali Ahmad, SettingsHarem Karim Ghafor The electronic sites coverage in the Kurdish satellite channels of the Turkish affair 2022-01-03T17:25:09+00:00 Rebar Goran Talabany Yahya Omer Reshawy <p>The electronic sites coverage in the Kurdish satellite channels of the Turkish affair<br>This study tries to search the size and nature of media coverage of the Kurdish satellite channels concerning the Turkish affair. The study also tries to reveal and reach the important data and information related to analysing and interpreting media content presented by Kurdish satellite channels about Turkish affair in form and content.<br>In this study description method has been practised using the quantity content analysis for a sample of news in August 2020 at all of ( NRT - Rudaw - Kurdsat News Satellites) depending on content analysis lists in order to reach accurate data and information concerning the aim of the study.<br>The two researchers reached a group of results, of which the ( military and security) issues have been given a great concern by the three channels, and that they all depended on their own private resources in getting news. The act of recording events comes first in all the three channels. They all focused on ( action )while mentioning the news concerning the Turkish ....... . Most of the mentioned news in the three channels talked about one perspective and they all prefer presenting numbers and statistics.</p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Rebar Goran Talabany, Yahya Omer Reshawy Human Development and its Impact on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Iraq as a case study for the period (2005-2019) 2022-01-03T17:51:25+00:00 Ahmed Ismael Qader <p>Human development works on two complete aspects: creating high capacities and capabilities for individuals and benefiting from the acquired capabilities by these individuals، especially when human development strives to raise the level of its three aspects (health، education and standard of living).<br>The research gained its importance from the subject of human development and its role in GDP، as the research started from the hypothesis that the relationship between human development as an independent variable and the GDP as a dependent variable is a positive relationship. Then the hypothesis was verified by applying two methods، the descriptive for the conceptual framework and the quantitative method for the practical part.</p> <p>The research reached several conclusions، the most important of which is that human development works for human well-being. And it reached an average level in Iraq which is (0.614) during the period of research. Also found was that there is a direct relationship between in depended variables and depended variable، as the increase in human development by (1%) leads to an increase in the gross domestic product by (5.92%). In light of this، several proposals were put forward.</p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ahmed Ismael Qader Analysis of the effect of greenhouses in increasing the production of vegetables in Slemni province 2022-01-03T18:05:00+00:00 Farhad N. Rahid Zhyan M. Ahmed <p>The study aims to address the role of the economic aspect of greenhouses in increasing agricultural production and the extent to which greenhouses provide the local demand for agricultural products such as vegetables and fruits in the province of Slemani. And in order to achieve this goal the research used the deductive approach on the theoretical framework as well as the inductive approach to study the subject in the province of Slemani using the numbers and statistics available in descriptive analysis and analytical-standard method and based on the program E-viesws 9. The research reached several conclusions, including that increase in the production rate of cucumbers in greenhouses is greater than the increase in tomato production rate in the province of Slemani, so the increasing production in greenhouses by one unit leads to an increase in total tomato production by (13%) assuming that other factors are stable, as for increasing the production of cucumber in greenhouses, increasing it by one unit leads to an increase in the production of cucumber by (75%) assuming the stability of other factors. The research concludes to increase the number of greenhouses and the diversification of agricultural products in order to satisfy all the needs of the local population of the province as well as exporting products to other areas of Iraq.<br>Keywords: Greenhouses, Cucumber crop, Tomato crop.</p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Farhad N. Rahid, SettingsZhyan M. Ahmed Soil Erosion assessment within the Erbil watershed using geo-informatics technology 2022-01-03T18:21:14+00:00 Hasan Mohammed Hameed <p>The spatial pattern distribution of average soil loss per year has been computed relying on the five criteria inputted in the Revised Universal Soil Loss (RUSLE), as well as with the application of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) techniques. The aim of this study is to calculate soil erosion by runoff in the Erbil watershed for different types of land cover and land-use. The soil erosion rate per year was recorded by incorporating environmental data and topographic factors in a grid (30 m resolution) by GIS and remote sensing package. The GIS database layers consist of rainfall erosivity (R), slope length and gradient (LS), soil erodability (K), land cover management (C) and conservation practice (P) criteria were estimated to identify their effects on average annual soil loss in the study area. Potential average annual soil loss of the Erbil watershed has been divided into three classes; low, moderate and high levels. The analysis indicates that 22.8% of the Erbil watershed is at a low-risk level of the soil loss, 9.5% medium-risk, whilst 67.8% it located under a high-risk level of soil erosion. The results indicated that soil loss rate per year estimated for the entire watershed is 14.35 ton. ha-1. yr-1, the study also refers to that most of the soil erosion occurs areas of agricultural activity. </p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Hasan Mohammed Hameed Comparison Study between Marshall and Superpave Mix Design Methods 2022-01-03T18:26:28+00:00 Sardar Majeed Omar Burhan Muhammed Sharif Hemn Unis Ahmed Wrya A. Abdullah <p>In Iraq most of the highways are paved with asphalt concrete mixtures, and they are typically designed for a design life of 20 years. However, the general performance of these pavements was not satisfied, and they have lasted for shorter periods than the design life age. A decrease in life age occurs especially for the pavements exposed to severe conditions and substantial traffic loadings. The key factor for a better performance of the flexible pavement is considered to be the qualities and quantities of the asphalt concrete ingredients which are governed by the design of the mixtures. To do so, the most common methods are Hveem and Marshal methods so far. However, a new method has been developed by Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) under the name of Superpave which is claimed to have better performance than the aforementioned methods. It has been proven in the literature that the performance of Superpave is better than Marshall in terms exposure to high loads and severe change of temperature. Therefore, this paper tries to illustrate the main differences between the two methods in the mix design by comparing them to each other.</p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 SettingsSardar Majeed Omar, Burhan Muhammed Sharif, Hemn Unis Ahmed, Wrya A. Abdullah The Implications of Using Electronic Devices (iPad as an Example) By Kindergarten Children 2022-01-03T18:45:09+00:00 Jwan Bahaden Ali <p>The aim of the current research is to identify the implications of using electronic devices (iPad as an example) by kindergarten children of (social, psychological, physical-physical and linguistic), Aspects in general and according to the variables of sex, age and time spent in using electronic means, for that purpose a scale consisting of (30) items and with (always, a lot, sometimes, a little, never) choices, the scale was distributed on (70) children selected intentionally and the sample totally was (51), with (28) boys and (23) girls .<br>Finally, the results showed that there is an effect of the iPad on all four aspects in general and especially the social aspect, and the results also showed that there were no statistically significant differences between children in the impact of the iPad according to the (gender and age) variables,<br>but there was statistically significant differences between children in the impact of the iPad device according to (time spent in using iPad), So that the more time in using the leads to more impact on children in all the aforementioned aspects.<br>Key Words: implications, electronic devices, iPad.</p> 2021-03-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 SettingsJwan Bahaden Ali