Halabja University Journal 2021-10-20T09:25:52+00:00 Omar Fouad Ghafor Open Journal Systems <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Halabja University Journal (HUJ)</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> is a quarterly academic journal published by the University of Halabja, Halabja, Kurdistan, Iraq. HUJ has a print-ISSN: 2412- 9607 and an electronic-ISSN: 2617-3360. HUJ is an international, multi-disciplinary, multi-language journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas, such as natural and applied Science, Humanities, and Social Sciences. HUJ is a Peer-Reviewed, double-blind and Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). HUJ provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal. Halabja University Journal applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts APA citation/referencing style. </span></p> Reflection of The Literary Return Style in Wafaee Poet 2021-08-19T19:15:08+00:00 Farhad Azeez Hasan Hiwa Nuraddin Aziz <p>Reflection of the literary return style in wafaee poetry<br>The geographical distribution of Kurdish dialects is directly related to the development of Kurdish literature in the classical period and the related literature of Kurdish language is divided into four separate literary periods based on the geography of Kurdish dialects. Each of these periods has its own characteristics. Generally, Kurdish literature has been widely influenced by the literature of its neighboring nations, especially Persian literature. This is the reason why Kurdish literature is generally evaluated in terms of stylistics based on its characteristics and based on the stylistic coordinates of ancient Persian literature.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>According to the history of Kurdish literature, ancient Kurdish literature is divided into four periods: Northern, Middle, Southern and Gorani. <br>The Middle Ages, during the twelfth century, the poet Nali and his followers, founded the basics of a poetry school which is known as Baban School of Poetry, and are known as the first generation of this period, they followed Khorasani, Iraqi, and Indian poetic styles. <br>But the poets of the second generation of the Baban poetic school followed the style of literary return. The style of literary return emerged in Iran in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and influenced Kurdish literature. <br>Vafai is one of the famous poets of the second generation of Baban School of Poetry. The current research through using descriptive and analytical research methods, will investigate the influence of literary return style and the characteristics of this style in the poems of Vafai.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Farhad Azeez Hasan, Hiwa Nuraddin Aziz The Role of suffix /_er/ to make up professional noun (derivation and compound) in Kurdish Language 2021-08-19T23:11:02+00:00 Othman Karim Abdalrahim <p style="direction: rtl;"><br />ئەم توێژینەوەیە هەوڵێکە بۆ شیکارکردنى لایەنێکى گرنگیى مۆرفۆلۆجی زمانى کوردی، ئەویش بە خستنەڕووى ڕۆڵ و بەبەرهەمیی مۆرفیمى وشەداڕێژەرى /-ەر/ ، لە سازکردنى ناوی پیشەیی لە زمانى کوردیدا، لەگەڵ دەرخستنی هەندێ لایەنى گرنگ و شاراوە لە سازکردنى ناوى پیشەیی داڕێژراو لێکدراودا، کە سەرچاوەى دروستبوونى بەشێک لەم وشانە، ڕەگى کردارەو بەشەکەی تریشیان چاوگەکانی زمانى کوردییە، کە هەریەکەیان لە شێوەى ناوی دیاردەیەک، ڕووداوێک، حاڵەتێک، ...هتد، خۆیان دەنوێنن، وەکو (کردن ، دان، بردن ، هێنان ، خستن، ...هتد) ئەوەى هەڵە مۆرفۆلۆجییەکەى دروستکردووە چاوگى (کردن)ە ((کە لە بەشی دووەمى ئەم توێژینەوەیە ئاماژە بەو سەرچاوانە دراوە))، زۆرێک لە زمانەوانەکان پێیانوایە (کەر)، لە (نانکەر) و (یاریکەر)دا پاشگرە، ئەمەیش پێچەوانەى یاساکانى مۆرفۆلۆجی دەوەستێتەوە چونکە ئەم توێژینەوەیە ئەوەى سەلماندووە، کە سەرچاوەى دروستکردنى وشەی (نانکەر) لە (نانکردن)ەوەیە کە بەم شێوەیە سازبووە (نان+کە+/-ەر/ = نانکەر).<br /><br /></p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Othman Karim Abdalrahim The Abdullah Peshew’s Poem (Le Destm Dea): the Psychological Motivations According to the Psychoanalytic Theory Perspective 2021-08-19T23:33:32+00:00 Omed Rahem Shamsalden Omar Abdulkarem Qadir <p>“The Abdullah Peshew’s Poem (Le Destm Dea): the Psychological Motivations According to the Psychoanalytic <br>Theory Perspective”. <br>The present research paper can be considered as an academic and scientific attempt to bring out the reasons and the psychological motivations that lead (Abdullah Peshew) to write his poem (Le Destm Dea- I can). However, this research presents an analysis for three important psychological motivations: nervousness and actions, melancholic, and sexual repression. In addition, this research tries to shed a light on these psychological motivations through analyzing poem text and its content according to the psychological theory. Accordingly, the present research paper is aimed at showing the poet’s real negative or positive situation in the (Le Destm Dea ) towards the woman.</p> <p>The research is divided into an introduction and three sections. The first section is dealt with the relationship between the psychology and literature in general, and psychology and poetry in particular. The second section is dealt with the emotional life of the poet and its reflection on his poetry before (Le Destm Dea). The third section has been customized to study and analyze the poem according to the psychological theory. Finally, the results have been presented with the references at the end of the research.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Omed Rahem Shamsalden, Omar Abdulkarem Qadir ‘Parody’ and ‘Play within a Play’ in William Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night 2021-08-20T00:09:54+00:00 Kawa Othman Omer Ahmed Shirin Sadallah Rasheed <p>The research investigates aspects of parody and ‘ play within a play’ in William Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night ( 1601-1602). One important issue to be investigated is the parodic relation between two interrelated plots in this romantic comedy. The main focus is on the play’s subplot with regard to the aspects of ‘parody’ and ‘ play within a play’. The play’s minor-plot, as the research demonstrates, parodically reflects on the play’s main themes and dramatic action. There is also a striking similarity and parodic relation between the two female protagonists in both interrelated plots with regard to female protagonists’ witty usage of language and deceptive schemes. Such parodic relationship reaffirms the play’s essential message in respect to women’s quest for individuality and self-hood. This is in accord with Shakespeare’s humanist and feminist perspective with regard to woman’s right in determining her own destiny. The current research is significant, for it shed lights on unexplored aspects in Shakespeare’s <br>romantic comedies such as ‘Parody’ and ‘Play within a Play’</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 SettingsKawa Othman Omer Ahmed, Shirin Sadallah Rasheed A Cognitive Semantic Study of selected English and Kurdish Proverbs in the Light of Conceptual Blending Theory 2021-08-20T00:28:29+00:00 Nyan Kamil Ghafour <p>Despite of having many proverbs in both English and Kurdish languages with the same image and conveying the same message, there are, at the same time, many proverbs in both languages that convey the same message with different images. This study is an attempt to find such proverbs in both languages to show the similarities that are found and how the Conceptual Blending Theory (CBT) works through analyzing the selected proverbs according to the mental spaces of the theory. The results of analyzing the proverbs according to CB has shown that despite of having differences in context, structure and culture, there are proverbs in different languages with different elements that give the same message. Depending on the analysis of the results, it is concluded that CBT is applicable to the analysis of proverbs in different languages and proverbs are universal phenomenon, with high communicative and instructive power. It is also concluded that there are proverbs in different languages that have the same proposition.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nyan Kamil Ghafour Challenges Experienced by Kurdish EFL Student-teachers during their Teaching Practicum 2021-08-20T00:38:20+00:00 Hameed Hussein Hamasaid Beway Mahmood Saheb <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the challenges EFL student-teachers experienced during their six-week teaching practicum. The participants were 20 student-teachers from the University of Halabja/ English Language Department who have participated in the teaching practicum in 2018-2019 academic year. Qualitative data collected from two focused group interviews (10 participants each) concerning the challenges student-teachers have experienced while practicing teaching in the basic schools. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The themes were identified using generic inductive analysis. The collected data were transcribed, coded and then analyzed. The results revealed that student-teachers faced various challenges during their teaching practice such as lack of technology in the schools, dealing with students with special needs, classroom management, use of L1 in the classroom, large classes and dealing with students’ difficult questions. Based on the results of the study, some recommendations will be made.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Hameed Hussein Hamasaid, Beway Mahmood Saheb Strategies to Assess EFL Students in Debate and Seminar Presentation: Students’ Perspectives 2021-08-20T00:47:12+00:00 Kharman Wasfi Tahir Nyan Kamil Ghafour <p>Different studies have been carried out in relation to Academic Skills course, debate and presentation as modules. Instructors usually use different ways to assess their students during or at the end of a course of study. They assess their students so as to make the results of the process, a feedback for the students concerning what they have presented. Assessment can be regarded as a way through which instructors gain information about their learners and what is learnt. Instructors use different strategies to assess their students. This paper aims at investigating students’ perspectives concerning the way they are being assessed in debate and seminar presentation. To meet the aim of the paper a questionnaire is designed for the purpose of data collection. The result of the study shows that giving chance to students to participate in class discussions increases their confidence to speak in public places, using specific strategies by instructors for assessing students in Academic Skills course help to develop their oral ability. And assessment is welcomed by the students. The research ends with the list of references. </p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 SettingsKharman Wasfi Tahir, Nyan Kamil Ghafour Kurdish National Liberation Movement from Rizgari Journal Perspective 20th April 1969 till 27th March 1970 A Historical Study 2021-08-20T01:28:36+00:00 Ahmad Hamadameen Omar <p>Rizgari Journal, as a general weekly journal, issued with the support of Political Bureau Wing of Kurdistan Democratic Party, has been able to cover a wide area from the Kurdish journalism history and has gathered wide readership around itself. Due to this historical significance and lack of any academic study concerning the standing-point of Rizgari journal towards Kurdish Liberation Movement, this study was deemed necessary.</p> <p>This paper consists of an introduction, four sections and an introduction. The first section is devoted to an overview of Rizgari Journal focusing on the idea of issuing the journal , the editing board ,the numbers issued along with the objectives of the journal. The second section tackles the way Rizgari journal looks at Kurdish National Liberation Movement. The third section presents the importance of writing the history of Kurdish National Liberation movement in Rizgari journal. In this section, the historical articles along with analytic articles concerning the various stages of the Kurdish Liberation movement are shown. The fourth section is devoted to displaying the viewpoint of Rizgari journal towards the Kurdish National Liberation movement in the period when the journal was issued. The paper end in a number of conclusions drawn from the study.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ahmad Hamadameen Omar Writing History by Kurdish Authors in Iraq Between1968-1975 in Kurdish Printed Books 2021-08-20T01:47:14+00:00 Bashdar Omar Rafeeq Mohammed Abdullah Kakasur <p>This study, which is entitled “writing history by Kurdish authors in Iraq between1968-1975 in Kurdish printed books, aims at investigating about those printed books in written and published in Kurdish by Kurdish authors in Iraq. Moreover, the historical method used in those printed books are also investigated together with the biography of the authors and the historians. For this purpose, this study discusses those 6 books that were printed in Baghdad and Kirkuk, and those 8 books that were printed in Sulaimani. The historeans were peoples of different backgrounds in Kurdistan including politicians, academics, lawyers, religious people, school teachers, poets, and scholars. This indicates the desire of writing history by peoples of different backgrounds in the Kurdish society at that time. The academic and scientific quality and the methodology employed in writing history books at that time seem to be different due to the fact that authors and historians were at different academic levels and that had made the books to be different in writing and adopting research methodologies from one atuthor to another.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Bashdar Omar Rafeeq, Mohammed Abdullah Kakasur The role of Shahrazor and Shahrazorian from before and after Mongolian occupy period (The historical comparison research from social, economy and science sides) 2021-08-20T01:57:18+00:00 Sangar Abdalla Rasul Hussein Abdulrahman Hussein Taha Rajab Hamad <p>This study is concerned with the Shahrazur region, and it consists of two topics: The first section contains reference to the geographical location of the Shahrazor region and the role of this region in the events surrounding it, which made this area a subject of interest for the central authority during the era of the Abbasid Caliphate, in addition to that, aspects were discussed. The social aspects of Sahl Shahrazor and the presentation of the basic pillars on which the society was based, and this study was not without shortcomings about the changes that occurred in the region as a result of the spread of the Islamic religion in it, and referring to the scientific aspects of the Shahrazor region and the people's interest in science in that period.<br>As for the second topic, I explored in depth the historical sources based on the economic, social and scientific effects of the Mongol attacks on the entire region, especially the collapse of the economic fundamentals, the displacement of people from their homes and the demilitarization of the region, with an explanation of the changing lifestyle of the community and the emergence of the region’s role in scientific fields And through this study, and this topic in particular, we are looking for the reasons that lie behind the people of Sharazur retaining their scientific roles and standing during their displacement and being subjected to forced migration, compared to the time when they were exposed to the Mongolian campaigns.<br>In conclusion, we make a comparison between the Shahrazor region in terms of geography, and with the region’s population in terms of the moral as a prominent figure during those two historical periods.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 SettingsSangar Abdalla Rasul, SettingsHussein Abdulrahman Hussein, SettingsTaha Rajab Hamad The Mandate to Consider Grievances (Al-Mazalim) in the First Islamic Eras to the End of the First Abbasid Era(232AH/846AD) 2021-08-20T02:14:19+00:00 Hussein M. salih <p>In the name of Allah Most Gracious Most Merciful<br>The Generous Allah has sent the Islam so as to make people live happily. One of the purposes of Islam is to establish justice among the members of society by establishing the basics of justice in the courts, since people have contact with one another, they face problems and sometimes the problem happens between a normal person in the society and the first responsible person. Because of any reason the Governor cannot work on the case and decide on it. So, it is necessary for the first responsible person who is Khalifa or Wali to see the case. For this purpose and for the solution of such problems Islam has established the State of Seeing the Oppression in which Khalifa or Wali himself sees the oppression. To clarify this subject and to shed light on how it has worked in the beginning of the first Islamic Eras till the time of First Abass , this research is an attempt to shed light on this important subject of Islamic Justice and could be beneficial and people get benefit from it . The Era of justice is a bright history in the civilized history of Islam which has been put down 1442 years before and has been applied, even nowadays the international court cannot compete with it because to see injustices by Khalifa and Wali in Islamic country proves that all the members in the society live equally under the shadow of justice and those who make mistakes are all punished in the same way</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Hussein M. salih The Usage of Energy for Conditioning Buildings to Achieve Human Comfort by Using Olgyay Bioclimatic Chart 2021-08-20T02:22:43+00:00 Pakiza Aziz Said Soran Hama amen Ahmad <p>Climate has a great and direct impact on humans and quality of life. Humans, in turn, get accommodated to their surroundings through architecture, clothes and food as well as using their resources for cooling and heating in order to live comfortably. <br>The different branches of climate studies include sunlight, temperature, humidity, wind, and precipitation. Each of these branches impacts the levels of human comfort at different rates. Temperature and humidity are the most significant of the contributing factors. Research has proven that the threshold desired for temperature in order for humans to be comfortable differs according to their location. The lowest temperatures for comfort are 15 – 18 °C and the highest are 25 – 28 °C, as long as humidity remains below 50%. Generally 18 – 25 °C is considered ideal for human comfort.<br>The study area’s climate is characterised by drastic differences in temperature according to seasons, months, and even between night and day. This is important as it effects how humans experience comfort. <br>This paper will determine the times of year which are comfortable and those that require extra efforts to be comfortable enough within buildings. Olgyay bioclimatic charts will be utilised in order to find these periods. This method will be applied to six different stations within the study area.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 SettingsPakiza Aziz Said, SettingsSoran Hama amen Ahmad The legal extension of the real estate lease contract 2021-08-20T02:36:16+00:00 Shangar Hardy Saeed Sargul Mustafa Ahmad <p>The legal extension of the real estate lease contract is a legal principle that allows the tenant to remain occupied by the property after the lease term ends without the lessor’s will. On the other hand, many of these amendments that got the Iraqi Real Estate Lease Law Number (87) for the year (7979) in the Kurdistan Region have become a reason In the occurrence of many problems between the landlord and the tenant in the community. Through this research, we want to focus on the positive and negative effects that the principle of legal extension entails, as we have demonstrated the difference between the legal extension and similar systems for it, as well as the extent of the validity of the legal extension in terms of location and people.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Shangar Hardy Saeed, Sargul Mustafa Ahmad International criminal court (ICC) is an independent and non one of the organs of United Nations (UN) 2021-08-20T02:51:41+00:00 Awara H. Ahmed Zana R. Saeed <p>International criminal court (ICC) is an independent and non one of the organs of United Nations (UN), and established by an international convention. Nevertheless which an independent court but it has a deep relation with the UN and its two organs such as; international court of justice (ICJ) and Security Council (SC), which this relation derived from the negotiated relationship agreement between the ICC and the UN as well as those powers which Rome statute of the ICC grants to UN and these two organs of UN. The relationship between ICC and UN include the expense of the court which parts of this expenses provided by UN in particular in relation to the expenses incurred due to referrals by the SC, and regarding amendment of the Rome statute Secretary-General of the UN shall convene a review conference to consider any amendments to this Statute. any State Party may propose amendments the text of any proposed amendment shall be submitted to the Secretary-General of the UN, who shall circulate it to all state parties of the ICC, then any amendments adopted at a meeting of the assembly of state parties or at a review conference circulate to all state parties by Secretary General of the UN. The relationship between ICC and ICJ based on the settlement of disputes, dispute between two or more state parties of ICC relating to the interpretation or application of the Rome statute assembly of the state parties responsible for settle it or may referral to the ICJ for settle it. And the relationship between ICC and SC is broader are comprised SC has the power to referral a situation to the ICC Acting under chapter seven of the UN charter, SC has the power to deferral of investigation or prosecution for a period 12 months and the other relation between ICC and SC, SC has the power to determine of an act of aggression committed by the state concerned, where the SC has made such a determination, the prosecutor of ICC may proceed with the investigation in respect of a crime of aggression. </p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Awara H. Ahmed, Zana R. Saeed Obligations to appeal the decision to close the criminal case - Comparative study - 2021-08-20T13:47:06+00:00 Ghazi Saber Dezaie <p>Perhaps the most important wisdom behind giving the right to appeal is to make an amendment to the criminal ruling in order to reach a better judgment and then better to apply the law, which guarantees the legitimate rights of the parties to the lawsuit, especially guaranteeing the rights of the person affected by the crime than ensuring his right to compensation for the violation of the crime, so that The right to appeal is one of the most important measures guaranteeing the rights of all parties, and by its verification it represents one of the justifications necessary to cancel the decision to close the criminal case, if it was presented before a competent judicial body and then take the decision to support the decision to close if it is found to be in conformity with the law or veto it, as support for the decision to close The criminal case from the concerned authorities Consideration of the appeal granted additional power in achieving a balance between the interests of society and the interests of the individual that is not referred to the court or tried only under proper legal procedures</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ghazi Saber Dezaie The existence of law between the validity and effectiveness (Descriptive and analytical study) 2021-08-20T14:32:02+00:00 Sardar Mala Aziz Rawa Kakarash Said Mina <p>The legal rule came to perform its function within the society; this is not embodied unless it is right in its creation and influential in its rule. If the legal rule connected on the one hand to the will of the rule maker, it remains linked on the other hand in its existence to the will of the followers. The factors that would provide its validity, as well as its effectiveness, must be taken into account, the former as a condition for the existence of the rule and the latter as a condition for its survival, and that is only if the rule originates from a right and real source, since the pretentious right lacks effectiveness. Therefore, the natural and genuine birth of the rule proves its validity and paves the way for it to be effective also, then the rule may realize its philosophy of existence.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Sardar Mala Aziz, Rawa Kakarash Said Mina Evaluation the Strategic Financial Performance of Commercial banks Field Study of Sample of Commercial Banks Operating in Sulaymaniyah Governorate 2021-08-20T14:49:44+00:00 Safin Rafhat Ghafar Karzan A dnan Khzer Nigar Jebar Aziz <p>The study dealt with the subject of strategic financial performance of a group of private banks operating in the province of Sulaymaniyah, where a set of financial indicators were chosen to evaluate the performance of these banks. The research sample also showed that the results of the analysis showed that the dijlah and furat Bank was distinguished in the overall performance indicators from the rest of the banks, and this reflects the administration’s success in this. The bank is planning and organizing in the direction of reaching a distinguished position. As was done through the analysis, a set of conclusions were reached that can be presented and based on these conclusions some recommendations can be presented that are expected to benefit the management of these banks in <br>guiding them in increasing their efficiency and effectiveness to achieve their strategic objectives.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Safin Rafhat Ghafar, Karzan A dnan Khzer, SettingsNigar Jebar Aziz The effect of internal auditing in reducing operational risks in Islamic banks (A field study in the Kurdistan International Islamic Bank for Investment and Development for the period 2019-2020) 2021-08-20T15:11:32+00:00 Sozan Abdulkarim faraj Bakhcha Abdulla Muhamad Rzgar Ali Ahmad <p>Banking activity exposes to many risks that require banks to take appropriate actions and procedures to manage and control these risks in accordance with international best practices in order to reduce or avoid potential losses. Operational risks are considered one of the most important banking risks, especially in the era of development in continuous technology, globalization and the abolition of restrictions in the practice of banking activities. Therefore, this research aims to demonstrate the extent of the internal audit's contribution to reduce the operational risks that Islamic banks are exposed to in order to protect them and make them to continue their operations. To achieve the objectives of the research, the questionnaire form was formed and distributed to a number of employees working in the Kurdistan International Islamic Bank for Investment and Development in the year 2019 and the use of the (spss) program to analyze the data and interpretation of the result, which included the activities carried out by the Internal Audit Department and contribute to reduce operational risks. The conclusions reached by the research are:<br>1. Internal auditing is capable of facing operational risks in Islamic banks from the worker point of view in the banking sector and employees in the internal audit department in those banks.<br>2. The internal auditors are aware of the importance of operational risks and they relies the need to improve internal control systems<br>Therefore research recommends:<br>1. The need for the administrative authorities in Islamic banks to pay attention to the internal audit activity, which helps to develop the job and provide the necessary capabilities to strengthen its position within the banks.<br>2. The necessity for Islamic banks to organize training courses for the internal auditors and qualify them in the use of operational risk management methods and how to face and evaluate them, as well as pay attention to provide courses to gain familiarity with Islamic financing forms that the bank works with to develop internal audit functions.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 SettingsSozan Abdulkarim faraj, SettingsBakhcha Abdulla Muhamad, SettingsRzgar Ali Ahmad Measuring and analyzing the relationship between unemployment rates and some of the economic variables In Iraq for the period (1996 - 2019) 2021-08-20T15:30:45+00:00 Khadeeja Qader Smael <p>The research deals with measuring and analyzing the relationship between unemployment rates and some of the economic variables in Iraq, using the joint integration methodology and the vector error correction model (VECM) to measure or estimate the effect of those variables on unemployment rates in the long and short term, in addition to using many tests. The other standard to confirm the validity of the results that have been reached, as the results of the research indicate that both the GDP and the inflation rate in the long and short term had a negative (positive) significant effect on the unemployment rate and in a period of two slower times as the values of their transactions in the long term reached (%-0.055) and (%-0.276),while in the short term they were (%-0.062( and (%-0.072)respectively. As for the population, it also had a negative (negative) significant effect and a period of two slowdowns, as well as the value of its transactions, reached the long term (%2.289), while in the short term it was (%0.500). As for the ETCt-1 error correction limit, it was significant and negative, as its value reached (%-0.985), which confirms the existence of a long-term equilibrium causal relationship between the variables included in the research.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Khadeeja Qader Smael Analysis of the OPEC oil price crisis during the period between the years 1961 - 2019) 2021-08-20T15:37:46+00:00 Salwa Tofiq Muhammed Sasan Hikmt Ali ‌Hamed Abdulla Salih <p>Analysis of the OPEC oil price crisis during the period between the years 1961 - 2019)<br>since oil was discovered in a commercial to date Competitor acquiring، did not lose the oil and economic importance at the international level، in particular the global level in general، because the oil with close ties to the economy of the consuming and producing countries in addition to the inability of the world to find a source of renewable and non-renewable sources of energy، both to replace oil.<br>Because of its importance in the world economy، which made the oil market is not restricted or legally binding rules of the market، but affected by a range of political factors contradictory gradual disengagement strategy between the big industrialized countries and consuming countries، underdeveloped and productive، there is no doubt that this Working Group was the Republic of the main influential in oil prices. Thus our view of the WORTHIEST to address this issue through research patterns opec))Oil Prices Mixed during an extended period between the years 1961 - 2019) with a view to know the pace of oil prices during the period mentioned in order to achieve this we must talk about the method of determining the price of oil with the shed light on the prices before the founding of the Organization of (opec)، and during the time period divided into several phases of time study with the analysis of the price of oil during each stage، at the end of the research reached a set of conclusions which may be of use to researchers in determining the fluctuation of oil prices during the specified period of time.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 SettingsSalwa Tofiq Muhammed, SettingsSasan Hikmt Ali, Hamed Abdulla Salih The Relationship and Effect of Social Media on Student’s Academic Performance: - University of Halabja as an Example 2021-08-20T15:53:55+00:00 Shahen Mohammed Faraj Marwan Mazhar Jafr <p>Today the internet captures our daily life. Students rely on it, specifically Social Media, for different purposes. The main purpose of this study is to show the effect of social media on students' academic performance in both positive and negative aspects. By using Circular Systematic Sampling, a questionnaire form was constructed to collect information from 320 students from the University of Halabja-Kurdistan Region-Iraq. The data were analyzed by using Pearson Chi-Square test in SPSS V22 program to show the influence of social media on students’ academic performance. It is concluded that students use social media most of the time on a different account like (Facebook, Messenger, Instagram...) for different purposes and that affects them positively and negatively. The research recommendation is that students must use social media for educational purpose. Otherwise, it affects their life negatively, especially their academic life.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 SettingsShahenj Mohammed Fara, Marwan Mazhar Jafr The role of television dialogue programs in Making political decisions The research for a model of political choice in the Kurdistan region between a periods of time 1/1/2018-21/12/2019 2021-08-20T16:19:18+00:00 Ashna Abdulla Qadir Akram Faraedon Hamaamen <p>The research topic revolves around (the role of television dialogue programs in shaping political decision-making in the Kurdistan region for some time1/1/2018-21/12/2019<br>The importance of research comes with the remarkable changes in the past ten years, during the political conditions of the region and the increase in parties to the conflict in the political field, in addition to the crisis and the political and economic instability of the region. TV channels and TV talk shows have become important arenas for development, dialogue and sitting face to face. For destinations and currents, each other and with the masses. From this aspect, the research is considered as one of the new research papers prepared and written in the mother tongue and linked to television dialogue programs and political decision making.<br>The media, and the great developments in it, participate in a large and clear way in the social and political life of societies, and it has a prominent influence in the formation and making of public opinion and political decision.<br>If the conflicts in the past were resolved through a military solution and direct exposure, but today's struggles are being fought within the media and through various media, and the aim of the research is to know the role of television dialogue programs in making political decisions<br>Therefore, within the framework of the descriptive research based on the standard approach and by the method of public opinion, the researcher applied the methodological lines, and in the theoretical message also depends on the methodology based on the mass media of the masses, which is one of the well-known theories in the field of media, especially in the manufacture of influence or role on the masses as one of the elements Communication process.<br>The researcher took the public opinion community and the targeted non-randomness model for (230) (six bezir) in the governorates of Erbil, Sulaymaniyah, Dohuk and Halabja for opinion polls, and to activate the public opinion path, the researcher used the referendum analysis form to reach the goal of the research.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Akram Faraedon Hamaamen, Ashna Abdulla Qadir