Halabja University Journal https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Halabja University Journal (HUJ)</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> is a quarterly academic journal published by the University of Halabja, Halabja, Kurdistan, Iraq. HUJ has a print-ISSN: 2412- 9607 and an electronic-ISSN: 2617-3360. HUJ is an international, multi-disciplinary, multi-language journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas, such as natural and applied Science, Humanities, and Social Sciences. HUJ is a Peer-Reviewed, double-blind and Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). HUJ provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal. Halabja University Journal applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts APA citation/referencing style. </span></p> University of Halabja en-US Halabja University Journal 2412-9607 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</li> </ol> Inference of the Meanings Idiom https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10429 <p>Semantics as a part of the sciences related to meaning and the interpretation of semantic features and signs has an own important. Regarding the meaning of fixed-expressions and idioms as one of these expressions, this study is entitled (Inference of the meanings of the Idiom) tries to interpret idioms as a set of fixed-expressions and carry Lexical and non-Lexical meanings Present other views,Thus, after presenting the definition and characteristics of idioms, giving the necessary examples and analysis of examples related to meanings &nbsp;analysis and the meaning of letters and non-letters, idioms are divided into two types, Lexical and non-Lexical. On the other hand, the relationship between form and meaning of idioms are interconnected each other, so that idioms are known to have a fixed form and an ambiguity meaning and form and meaning are tightly linked together, this relationship is presented in a new way in this study. From this perspective, it is divided into several types and the necessary examples and analysis are presented.</p> Sherko Hamaamin Qadir Ehsan Sabir M. Rashid Copyright (c) 2022 Sherko Hamaamin Qadir, Ehsan Sabir M. Rashid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 4 1 20 10.32410/huj-10429 Conceptual Metaphor Theory in Poetrys’ Code https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10430 <p>Common conceptual metaphors are used in poetry, as part of the conceptual metaphor theory,&nbsp; that enables poets to express their poetic images and depict their world through a mixture of language and cultural codes. This study is an attempt to show how conceptual poetic metaphors are illustrated in Kurdish poems by analysing source and target domains. According to the theory, the target domain which is the metaphor emerges from the source domain,&nbsp; that is generally the source of our common knowledge of the world. This leads speakers and listeners to easily categorise and make sense of the abstract terms. In this research, samples of poems were analyzed and categorized according to four types of conceptual metaphors such as imagistic, orientational, ontological and structural. They were also given two codes in reference to both aforementioned domains. Therefore, the Mapping &nbsp;between the two sources in the literary samples was observed and shown in the present paper.</p> Trifa Omar Ahmed Muhammad Karim Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 Trifa Omar Ahmed, Muhammad Karim Ahmed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 4 21 38 10.32410/huj-10430 The Morphophonemic (/i/) in the Central Kurdish dialect of the language https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10431 <p>The morphophonemic (/i/) in the Central Kurdish dialect of the &nbsp;Kurdish language, in the (Phonetic, Phonological, Morphological, and Syntactic) structures appear as the same form, but they are different in their structures. This research is conducted on (analytical- descriptive) method, and aome of the equivalent forms of (/i/) are analyzed based on the principles of generative school. For the purpose of presenting the examples, along with the phonemic alphabet, international phonetic alphabet (IPA) is also used. The examples are taken from daily expressions in central Kurdish dialect. In compared words, the vowel phoneme proves itself in the smallest phonological two-word example, and is differed from the semi-consonant (/i/). In the morphological and syntactic structures, it performes different duties as a bound morpheme, and due to the present stress, the long sound of (/i:/) or the short (/i/) are embodied.</p> Dilshad M. Gharib Copyright (c) 2022 Dilshad M. Gharib https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 4 39 51 10.32410/huj-10431 Bilingual education and second language teaching problems in the education systemsystem https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10432 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Language and education are inseparable twins. Language, as an important tool in all areas of life, has a great impact. It is the backbone of the educational process, and plays an important role in the development of general knowledge on language and general knowledge of students as well. If we exclude language from the educational process, education will be paralyzed, and education as an important field has a great role in building all the other areas of life, how to deal with language and education ,needs attention to careful decisions, wise decisions, appropriate policies and plans, learning second language education before the age of 10-12 years, there are a number of educational, psychological, social, language, etc. problems., psychological, social, linguistic and other problems, however, learning and teaching a foreign language has particular importance, however, should be directed and supervised, at the appropriate age and time, and used in accordance with appropriate language and educational plans and policies, the negative effects must not exceed the benefits nor should they have a negative impact on the mother tongue.</p> Ashti Ahmed Hassan Omed Barzan Brzo Copyright (c) 2022 Ashti Ahmed Hassan, Omed Barzan Brzo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 4 52 72 10.32410/huj-10432 Reflection of culture in the stories of Sherzad Hassan https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10433 <p>This research, entitled "Reflection of culture in the stories of Sherzad Hassan", is a new focus on the two sides of "Kurdish culture and story", in which culture has been tried to be revealed in all its details, and on the other hand, the types and characteristics of culture have been discussed in Sherzad Hassan's stories, because culture is related to many aspects such as: (Superstition and the development of science and technology), so here are attempts to clarify those parties directly related to culture, which create effects and reactions on each other, the research has been conducted according to the method (description-analysis, social criticism), the problem of the research is the talk about the influence of culture and the surroundings on storywriters, how this effect has been revealed in Sherzad Hassan's stories, how superstition has become a part of our individuals' culture and thinking, and finally the result of the study has been revealed that this study consists of two main sections, the results and the list of references.</p> Osman Abdul Barznji Dilan Salam Hamafaraj Copyright (c) 2022 Osman Abdul Barznji, Dilan Salam Hamafaraj https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 4 73 89 10.32410/huj-10433 Letters of meanings that assert a single verb in the Targhib and Tarheeb by Al-Mundhiri (656 A.H.); A grammatical semantic study https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10434 <p>This research highlights the letters of meanings that actually confirm (Tajzim) one verb i.e. (LAM, LAMMA, LAM AL-AMR, LA AL-NAHYA AL-JAZM), it studies them in two respects: the first: a grammatical study so that it deals with them from the depths of the grammatical books and shows their work and the provisions of each letter. The second is a semantic study that studies from a semantic point of view and mentions its meanings. These two studies are applied to Al-Targhib and Al-Tarhib, as it is a book that included many hadiths of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and then we look at the occurrence of their meanings and related matters of grammar in it. The study in the research is a descriptive and analytical study, and we did not differentiate between theoretical and applied study but merged them together. The nature of the research required that the researcher divide his research into a preface where he mentions the definition of the letter and terminology, and then to four chapters in each chapter dealing with one of the letters mentioned above, and in conclusion we mention several results we pick during our study, and then we finish the research by mentioning a set of sources and references that the researcher needed during the study.</p> Hiwa Abdullah Karim Zhilwan Akram Rashid Copyright (c) 2022 Hiwa Abdullah Karim, Zhilwan Akram Rashid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 4 90 102 10.32410/huj-10434 Investigating Kurdish EFL University Students' Perceptions on Implementing the Bologna Process at the Universities of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10435 <p>Iraqi Kurdistan Region has started implementing the Bologna Process in some universities as part of the higher education institutions’ reform to meet the needs of the new century and enable graduates to compete and enter the local and international labour market. From this perspective, the current study aims at investigating the Kurdish EFL university students’ perceptions on implementation &nbsp;of the Bologna Process and the challenges they face. For this purpose, a questionnaire was distributed and &nbsp;taken 245 students of sixth semester at the departments of English from four different universities. The collected data were analyzed using IBM, SPSS.&nbsp; The result revealed that crowed classes prevent &nbsp;the students them from taking an active participation &nbsp;the learning process; This means the &nbsp;student-centered approach is not applied in this context. Moreover, the mobility action line has not been achieved so far since the majority of the students did not participate in any exchange programs with the universities of the &nbsp;European Higher Education Area. Finally, the study suggests some solutions such as establishing and developing cooperation among departments of English at Iraqi Kurdistan Region universities.&nbsp; Curricula reform, providing instructors with&nbsp; training to apply the student-centre approach in a way that matches the Bologna Process action lines.</p> Barham Sattar Abdulrahman Layla Taher Sharif Copyright (c) 2022 Layla Taher Sharif, Barham Sattar Abdulrahman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 4 103 124 10.32410/huj-10435 Gulanber (Halabja) district in the Ottoman Annual Calendars https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10436 <p>This study is about some different aspects of one of the significant districts of Othman empire, which is Gulanbar district. The paper is divided into an introduction and two chapters. In the introduction, the researchers demonstrated the creation of Sharazur Province and Gulanbar’s location in the province.&nbsp; First chapter is devoted to talk about the districts’ geographical position, climate, topography of the region, structure of its residents and economic condition (agriculture and livestock). In chapter two officials and administrators of the district and the boundaries of the administrative units are illustrated in the last decades of Othman Empire’s power as it is mentioned in the annual calendar of Ottoman.</p> Kamaran Abdulrazzaq Braim Adl Sdiq Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Kamaran Abdulrazzaq Braim, Adl Sdiq Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 4 125 144 10.32410/huj-10436 The Diplomatic relations between the Neo-Assyria state and the Mannean kingdom (911 – 610 B.C) https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10437 <p>The Manneans appeared in the early 9th century B.C in the cuneiform records, and sure there were existed before, they perhaps originated from the Hurrians and Kassites of the second millennium, they were spread in a vast area south, southeast and southwest of Urmia lake, its really border is not known yet, but general the Urmia basin was their homeland. Their capital city was located near modern Bokan city south of Urmia lake, they had numbers of federal regions, each region ruled by a ruler, the kings were based in their royal city Izirtu (modern Tepe Qalaichi) near modern Bokan/Bukan city.</p> <p>The Mannean kings generally had good relations with the Assyrian kings, but their relation was unequal in power and their role. This paper deals with the Assyrian and Mannean diplomatic relations, their peaceful contacts, and their conflicts, the Assyrian policy against and toward Mannea, the Assyrian policy of collecting taxes, booties, deportation policy etc.</p> Dilshad Aziz Marf Hero Kamal Kareem Copyright (c) 2022 Dilshad Aziz Marf, Hero Kamal Kareem https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 4 145 168 10.32410/huj-10437 Effect zone analysis of educational services in the city of Darbandikhan for the year (2021-2022) https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10438 <p>Educational services are one of the main requirements of the urban population because the service is linked to the abilities of the individual; i.e., the presence of this service in the city revives the abilities of the population in terms of material and spiritual, It is also a measure of civilization. The distribution of educational services in a balanced manner and increasing their number in the city of Darbandikhan will be a great help to reach (kindergarten children and school students) the place of the service, The problem of the study is the imbalance in the distribution of the service and the small number of some educational institutions in Darbandikhan, which has caused the area deprived of effect zone for educational services to be large, The aim of this study is to determine the geographical location of educational services in Darbandikhan to become a basis for identifying the effect zone for them and then evaluate educational services in the city according to distance criteria for different stages of education to know how much area is served in the city, what part of the city covers and then where are the places and how much of their area that the service does not cover and are deprived of it, In this study, Inductive reasoning , descriptive and analytical approaches were relied upon to achieve the objective, The most important outcomes and conclusions of this study are that the imbalance and low number of educational institutions in some stages of education, especially kindergarten and vocational high school, has caused the deprived area of effect zone for educational services to be large and not meet the requirements of some neighborhoods in the city.</p> Fatih Akram Ali Bayan Ali Hussein Copyright (c) 2022 Fatih Akram Ali, Bayan Ali Hussein https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 4 169 190 10.32410/huj-10438 Iraq and the Kurdistan region in front of the opportunities and threats of the New Silk Road https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10439 <p>China's One Belt and One Road (New Silk Road) initiative, after it was proposed by the President of China in 2013, became an important issue and received a lot of attention from global and regional research centers. The attention of researchers, think tanks and research centers to this project is due to its magnitude, importance, and global effects. To the extent that this plan should be viewed from the geo-economic and geo-political perspectives. Some researchers believe that this plan will be China's plan and preparation for a superpower in the 21st century. As a participating country in this initiative, Iraq was able to attract a significant proportion of the attention of the Chinese government and its companies. Hence, Iraq was able to receive the largest amount of Chinese investment in the framework of the One Belt and One Road initiative in 2021. Certainly, any such strategic plan will not be without positive and negative effects on different regions and countries. From this point of view, the aim of the current research will be to investigate the effects of this mega project on the situation of Iraq and the Kurdistan region. To achieve this goal, the article was written in a library style and descriptive/analytical method. As a result; four big opportunities and three basic challenges were determined in front of Iraq in general. Also, three serious challenges will be faced by the Kurdistan Region in particular.</p> Peshawa Anwar Nasralla Copyright (c) 2022 Peshawa Anwar Nasralla https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 4 191 210 10.32410/huj-10439 Assessment of the efficiency of drinking water service in Halabja city https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10440 <p>The production and consumption of potable water is one of the important applied topics to which planning studies have been directed, due to the increased demand for drinking water consumption and its other uses. The cities of the world suffer from the problem of providing services, especially the problem of water supply, which is a global phenomenon that increases in severity in dry areas and cities far from rivers.The study aimed to reveal the working mechanism of the drinking water production projects supplied to the city of Halabja and to evaluate its qualitative, quantitative and distributive efficiency. It also revealed that the city is equipped with potable water from two major projects and (7) artesian wells that serve (39) residential localities with a population of (79,505) people in (2021), The study relied on the descriptive analytical method in studying the reality of potable water services. The study reached a set of related conclusions and recommendations presented at the end of the research, the most important of which is that the quantity of potable water produced in the Halabja water projects is sufficient to meet all uses in the city. The per capita share amounted to (450 liters / person / day) (in 2021), which is greater than the specific schematic standard of (250 liters / person / day), and the water produced in terms of quality, are identical with the Iraqi and international standards.</p> Najmaldeen Hadi MuhammadSaid Copyright (c) 2022 Najmaldeen Hadi MuhammadSaid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 4 211 234 10.32410/huj-10440 The legal nature of the law No. 1 (1992) amended the Election Law for the Kurdistan Parliament – Iraq https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10441 <p>After the failure of negotiations between the Kurdistan political parties and the <em>Ba'ath Party</em>, the Iraqi government withdrew the governmental and administrative institutions in the Kurdistan regions, and this withdrawal created an administrative and legal space, and accordingly the Kurdistan political parties thought of enacting a special law to fill this gap. For this purpose, the political leadership of the Kurdistan parties formed a special committee consisting of 15 members to write a draft law for the National Assembly of Kurdistan - Iraq. This committee submitted the draft to the political leadership on (28/4/1992), and they approved Law No. (1) Of 1992 in the name of the Law of the National Assembly of Kurdistan – Iraq (It's called now amended the Election Law for the Kurdistan Parliament – Iraq) .In this study, we shed light on this law in order to know the nature of this law.</p> <p>The study of the subject and the scientific understanding of its various aspects require dividing it into two chapters. In the first one, we talked about the status of the Law No. (1) Of 1992 in the constitutional system of the Kurdistan Region - Iraq. The second one deals with the study of the type and method of establishing the Law No. (1) Of 1992, in which we tried to shed light on the content of this law and to determine its type and method of establishing it. In the end, we reached a set of conclusions and recommendations.</p> Delshad Hamed Darwesh Copyright (c) 2022 Delshad Hamed Darwesh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 4 235 246 10.32410/huj-10441 Effect of a Training Program For The Development of Psychological and Social Adaptation Among Kindergarten Students) https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10442 <p>The purpose of this study to determine the effectiveness of a training program for develop in psychological and social adaptation among kindergarten students. The limityation of the study is the students of the kindergarten department of the College of basic Education of Sulaimani University for the academic year (2021-2022).</p> <p>A semi-experimental method has been used that depends on a single experimental groupThe research community consists of (295) students, and the sample (25) is students the researcheres have prepared a scale consisting of (43) items. Then construction a training program to develop psychological and social adaptation, consisting of (10) sessions, for each session duration (45 to 60) minutes.</p> <p>The statistical program (SPSS) used for analyziy the data and the statistical tools that used in the study (the One sample T test ) to measure the psychological and social adaptation of the experimental group before implementation of the program.</p> <p>as well as the (Two independent samples t-tests)&nbsp; used to compare (pre- and post-test) according to the dimensions of the study. The study concluded that :</p> <p>1-Training program has a positive effect on the development of&nbsp; psychological and social adaptation.</p> <p>2- The effectiveness of the program differs according to dimensions (family compatibility, academic compatibility, interpersonal compatibility, and volatility compatibility).</p> <p>According to the research there are results, a number of recommendations and suggestion.</p> Niyan Namiq Sabir Harem Mohammed Abdulkarim Copyright (c) 2022 Niyan Namiq Sabir, Harem Mohammed Abdulkarim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 4 247 263 10.32410/huj-10442 Robust Steganography Technique for Embedding Secret Images https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10443 <p>Steganography is a technique used to disguise the existence of a secret communication. It is used in many fields to solve information security problems. Steganography is a technique to embed secret data in a carrier image and obtain a new image that can't actually be distinguished from the original image. This paper proposes steganography method based on least significant bit (LSB) replacement and integer wavelet transform IWT through lifting scheme to achieve high quality of stego image. we will do some pre-processing on the secret image before embedding process. IWT transforms the secret image from spatial domain to a frequency domain and will be divided it into a group of sub-bands, some of which we will use for their utmost importance and ignore some of them.</p> <p>We have embedded the secret image in a sequential LSB method and in a randomly LSB method and also by the method LSB matching. But after applying our proposed method to the secret image and then embedded it in each of the three above-mentioned methods, it was found that it had a higher degree of imperceptibly and obtained a higher rate of PSNR and the possibility of recovering the secret image without errors. By using the randomly and LSBM methods gives a higher security and resistance to extraction by attackers.</p> Nehayat Ezzaldeen Majeed Haval Mohammed Sidqi Copyright (c) 2022 Nehayat Ezzaldeen Majeed, Haval Mohammed Sidqi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 4 264 281 10.32410/huj-10443 Marketing Profession and Women's Skills in Kurdish Television Programs https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10444 <p>The main objective of this study is to show the role of television programs in promoting women's abilities, to demonstrate the role of television in creating marketplaces for women's professions and skills, and to indicate the measure to which women relied on television. Women's abilities focus on the implications of Kurdish television in locating markets for women's professions and the degree to which women rely on Kurdish television to help them develop their abilities. The researcher created a survey form to collect data. The form consisted of three topics and 27 items. The other part of the form was dedicated to obtaining general information from the respondents, in which eight questions were asked. The data were collected from all women entrepreneurs in both provinces of Suleimani and Halabja; 100 forms were returned correctly. The research used several statistical tools to analyze and interpret the results.</p> <p>Among the most important findings of this study, Kurdish televisions try to pay attention to women's level by establishing several programs dedicated to women's abilities and promoting their professions.</p> Nusaiba Farih Abdalqadir Nazakat Hussain Hamasaeed Copyright (c) 2022 Nusaiba Farih Abdalqadir, Nazakat Hussain Hamasaeed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 7 4 282 304 10.32410/huj-10444