Halabja University Journal https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Halabja University Journal (HUJ)</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> is a quarterly academic journal published by the University of Halabja, Halabja, Kurdistan, Iraq. HUJ has a print-ISSN: 2412- 9607 and an electronic-ISSN: 2617-3360. HUJ is an international, multi-disciplinary, multi-language journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas, such as natural and applied Science, Humanities, and Social Sciences. HUJ is a Peer-Reviewed, double-blind and Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). HUJ provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal. Halabja University Journal applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts APA citation/referencing style. </span></p> University of Halabja en-US Halabja University Journal 2412-9607 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</li> </ol> The style of city and village lives in the poetic text (Spring of Village) of Hemin Mukriany https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10408 <p>The ‘villagers’ or ‘plains’ community is the primary stage of human life and falls ahead of the ‘urbanization’, each of these stages holds a set of characteristics and genders which distinguishes it from others. Obviously, the ‘pre-urban-stage’ is much closer to the nature and features of human spontaneity that is why the villagers are simple, pure, happy, toiling, healthy, patient, courageous, and brave. But over the time, the type and style of life change therefore these original characteristics fade.</p> <p>Teacher Hemin presents the life of villagers amazingly in the poetic text ‘spring of the village’ and demonstrates all the values and characteristics of the Kurdish rural community.</p> <p>The content of this study consists of two main parts: the first part focuses on analyzing all the characteristics and values that the poet attributes to the rural community. In the second part, all the Kurdish words and phrases that have been used by the poet in text are presented in the glossary style.</p> Aram Mohammad Qadir Copyright (c) 2022 Aram Mohammad Qadir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 1 26 10.32410/huj-10408 Semiology of place in Sherko Bekas's poetry "Halabja as an example" https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10409 <p>Semiology is a science that works on both signs and human behaviors that are carrying specific meanings. These signs include all linguistic and non-linguistic subjects, and all these is to reach to the core meaning of signified things. Kurdish poetry in general and modern poems in particular have many marked words in different fields, yet place is one of the things that holds different meanings and purposes for interpreting texts. In addition, human contact with place has a very deep spiritual relationship, and it directly affects individuals, as place has an important role in events, personal interpretations, and identity… etc. Therefore, Halabja disaster has created an impact as a place and has created many semiology signs for each Kurdish individual and they continuously need Semiology interpretations. In addition, the poet has focused on this term in many of his poems, so place in Sherko Bekas's poems is an honest experience and we can openly feel it. However, he expresses different attitudes such as social and political ideas, including Halabja, which has a special position and importance to the poet because of the chemical attack by the regime.</p> Luqman Raouf Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Luqman Raouf Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 27 45 10.32410/huj-10409 Speech Act of Criticism in Kurdish: A Pragmatic Study https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10410 <p>Speech acts composes a big part of language; it is one of the bases of pragmatics, it can be defined as the use of language to make things happen in the world. The aim of the study is to investigate the strategies of the speech act of criticism in Kurdish. One hundred twenty undergraduate native Kurdish speaking students were selected as a sample for the study. The students were of different majors, sexes and social classes. Discourse Completion Test (DCT) approach is adopted in collecting the data which has 10 scenarios. The test has been carried out at Salahaddin and Koya universities. After the data collection, strategies of criticizing have been classified in terms of Nguyen 2005 model. The results of the investigation show that Kurds would rather employ indirect strategies than direct strategies to give criticism.</p> Burhan Saleh Sulaiman Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 46 58 10.32410/huj-10410 Sapatial Analysis of the Main Transportion Roads in Garmian administration: A Quantitave Analytical Study https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10411 <p>A number of quantitative tools have been used in this study to analyze transportation networks in the Garmian administration. The research aims to show the reality of transportation from the view of (Connectivity, Circuitry, Accessibility, and density), in addition to analyzing the relation between the length of the roads within the network and the population’s distribution. The important findings of the study are that: generally, the network is weak from each positioning point and the rotating level and besides having unequal distribution inside different part of the studied area. Meanwhile, the length of roads is inconsistent with the population rate.</p> Ibraheem Qasim Darwish Amanj Fuad Ahmad Mohammed Mahdi Karim Copyright (c) 2022 Ibraheem Qasim Darwish, Amanj Fuad Ahmad, Mohammed Mahdi Karim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 59 81 10.32410/huj-10411 Factors affecting the private higher education demand in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq for 2021 'Analytical study' https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10412 <p>This study aims to analyse and measure the most significant factors, which are affecting the demand for educational services in private universities and institutes in the Kurdistan Region. To investigate the objectives of the study, it is adopted the descriptive and quantitative approach depending on a questionnaire as a main tool for the study. The study population would be all families whose one of their members were admitted to private universities and institutes in the Kurdistan Region. With regard to samples, it used Stratified random sampling represented by students of private Universities and institutes and their families in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, which amounted to (724) families in the year (2021). The findings indicated that all the factors, which were taken in the study, have a significant effect on the demand for private higher education in both universities and institutes. It can be seen that the factors related to the quality of private Universities and Institutes attained the largest mean agreement of (2.42) with a standard deviation of (0.38). Whereas, social factors ranked last, with an average of (2.17), with a standard deviation of (0.448). As for the relative significance of these factors, the study illustrated that the first factor represented by (social, quality of universities and institutes, institutional and governmental factors) explained 15.9% of the changes occurring in the "factors affecting the applying for private higher education in the Kurdistan Region." Moreover, the second factor is represented by the political and other factors, which explained 43.5% of these changes. The third factor represented by the economic factors explained 17.7% of the changes occurring in these factors. The study provides several recommendations: Firstly, concentrate on upgrading the language and curricula in universities and private institutes as well as opening new academic departments that meet labour market needs in a way that can compete with government and foreign universities and institutes. In addition, it is also essential to subject these universities and institutions to more oversight and supervision in terms of admitting a required number of students proportional to the number of professors, classrooms, and laboratories.</p> Fahmy Mohamad Ali Abdullah Shler Ali Salih Copyright (c) 2022 Fahmy Mohamad Ali Abdullah, Shler Ali Salih https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 82 112 10.32410/huj-10412 Ababayle ; An Anthropological Research on Social system https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10413 <p>&nbsp;The research is about Ababayle village, which is an Anthropological research about social system. This has had along history with a great position and role in the distrist &nbsp;In this research it deals with social system in the political , social and culturals&nbsp; filds ,and also the impacts of this system on the other political economical and social components are an plained for this reason functional contraction theory is used ,we intend to explain social system and its changes. Like marriage process and its customs with family and its types in addition to relationship and its influence on the other systems.</p> <p>The components and tradition of the village have recently been changed greatly, as it is declared in the conclusion such as vanishing marriage customs and the inextente social classification in the village and losing lots of its land because of service project in Halabja province border. In spite of all social relation and relationship as before and has not witnessed area change.</p> Bahaaldeen Faraj Mahmood Copyright (c) 2022 Bahaaldeen Faraj Mahmood https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 113 125 10.32410/huj-10413 Aesthetic values of decorative inscriptions and epigraphic texts in contemporary ceramics in Kurdistan region https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10414 <p>Historically, ceramic art is one of the most important arts that has emerged in all civilizations as an artistic value and a philosophical concept of the movement between material and tangible objects or between the ambiguity and clarity of the structure of the elements of works of art that were carried out as a human activity through its artistic output, in showing the same aesthetics of ceramic works of art in terms of form and decoration The Kurdish artist also benefited from the works surrounding him historically, philosophically and artistically, so the culture and history of Kurdish art has an important value in identifying the implicit concepts that the artist enriches aesthetically in his works, and this contributes to the neighborhoods of Kurdish culture and the development of cultural values intellectually and aesthetically, to achieve modern and contemporary art, so the student will research on "the aesthetic values of decorative inscriptions and texts in contemporary ceramic Kurdistan region",&nbsp; Here, the researcher highlights the problem of research embodied in the following question: Has the value of aesthetics become a cause for the transfer of artistic ideas in the presentation of ceramic artwork or just decorating and filling spaces with decorative inscriptions and drawings without aesthetic value? This research is a description and analysis of the works of Kurdish artists. The first chapter consists of the general framework of research that includes (problem, importance, objectives, boundaries) and then the definition of terminology, while the second chapter consists of three investigations. The first topic deals with: the definition of the philosophy of the values of beauty in art, and the second topic dealt with the realization of aesthetic values in the work of art, but the third research is about showing decorative inscriptions and biblical texts in Kurdish fine art, and the third chapter dealt with a research society, while the fourth chapter consists of the results of the research.</p> Shwan Bahram Sabir Naeema Muhammad Abdulla Copyright (c) 2022 Shwan Bahram Sabir, Naeema Muhammad Abdulla https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 126 149 10.32410/huj-10414 Aesthetic and functional features of archeological pottery sculptures of Kurdistan region of Iraq https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10415 <p>There are a large number of archaeological sites in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, and each of them has its own importance, but many of them have not been excavated yet, except for a small part of them, where many artifacts were found, but they have not been artistically analyzed or aesthetically read, That's why the two researchers considered this research necessary, which aims to identify the aesthetic and functional features of pottery statues of archaeological sites in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. This research, It consists of four chapters, chapter one is the definition of research: search problem, importance of search, search objectives, search boundaries consisting of time limits and search location, The second chapter consists of two sections: the first is a study on the history of the emergence of the art of pottery in the civilization of Mesopotamia, and the second is a summary of the intellectual sources of plastic forms in archaeological sites in Kurdistan. In the third chapter, the two researchers took some samples from the statues located within the area of the research, and they were analyzed according to the descriptive analysis method. As a result, the two researchers reached in the last chapter researchers reached a message from those who made pottery statues, especially in the Assyrian and Khoury periods, where their aesthetics and functions appeared in pottery sculptures in the structures, techniques and methods of their manufacture. The search ends with a list of used sources.</p> Ashwaq Ihsan Ramadhan Naeema Muhammad Abdulla Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 150 172 10.32410/huj-10415 Designing an Educational Program Supported by Augmented Reality Technology in Obtaining the Social Concepts and Developing Creative Thinking in Kindergarten – Level II https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10416 <p>The aim of the study is to develop an educational program supported by augmented reality technology, and to determine its effectiveness in the acquisition of social concepts and the development of creative thinking among kindergarten – level II. In accordance with the nature of the subject and the objectives of the study, the experimental method was adopted. The sample of the study is Lank kindergarten in which (30) children were selected by drawing and divided into experimental group (who were taught using the prepared program based on augmented reality technology) and consisted of five boys and ten girls, and control group (who were taught using the standard kindergarten program and style) and consisted of six boys and nine girls. Then, the researcher has developed her own educational program, according to the appropriate principles and guidelines for developing educational programs, by using augmented reality technology, which was an application that was named (Sazan AR) that was dedicated to the content of the program of the subject of the research, as well as the content of the official kindergarten booklet. In it, the chosen images from the aforementioned booklet are shown as 3D figures and educational videos. Further, the researcher has developed a measurement for the social concepts to evaluate the sample of the research before and after the application of the program. She simultaneously used Torrance’s criteria (TTCT, 1966) to evaluate the research sample’s creative thinking before and after the application of the program. After implementing the program on the research sample, it was found that the (teaching - learning) program based on augmented reality technology is effective in acquiring social concepts, when comparing the pre-test and post-test of the experimental group. There was also a statistically significant difference in the post-test between experimental and control group at the level of evidence (0.05) in favor of the experimental group. Further, while the program was effective in developing creative thinking among the children of the experimental group when comparing pre-test and post-test, there was no significant difference between the post-test of experimental and control groups at the level of evidence (0.05). Finally, the study concluded that the use of augmented reality technology in the teaching process is an effective and better way than the conventional way of teaching. Augmented reality technology is also appropriate for the kindergarten stage and is an enjoyable experience for them in the learning process. Despite the advantages of augmented reality technology, development and application of the technology is not an easy task at the individual level and by teachers alone, therefore the ministry of education should help with its preparation and application.</p> Sazan Salah Tofiq Solav Faeq Shamayee Copyright (c) 2022 Sazan Salah Tofiq, Solav Faeq Shamayee https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 173 197 10.32410/huj-10416 Investigation of the effect of sucrose substitution with Stevia on the structure, physicochemical and sensory properties of ice cream https://huj.uoh.edu.iq/index.php/HUJ/article/view/huj-10417 <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p>Consumption of milk and its products is considered as one of the indicators of human societies' development. Ice cream as one of the most popular milk products around the world has many fans but due to its high amount of sucrose has negative effects on health. Stevia, a natural sweetener, was used as a sucrose substitute at 0-100% replacement levels in ice cream formulation. To investigate the treatments produced, physicochemical properties in ice cream including specific gravity, viscosity, melting time of the first drop, melting amount, overrun. The results showed that viscosity decreased by 100% by increasing the amount of stevia replacement. While overrun, Firmness, melting time of the first drop and consequently the melting stability of the samples increased with increasing the percentage of stevia used, Sensory test results showed that there was no significant difference between stevia and control samples except cold sensation and ice crystal. As a general result, stevia sweetener is a suitable substitute for sugar and samples containing 100-75% stevia were identified as desirable treatment.</p> Khanda Sirwan Satar-AlDavdi Copyright (c) 2022 Khanda Sirwan Satar-AlDavdi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 7 2 198 208 10.32410/huj-10417